Presentation on theme: "The Complement system. The complement system A defensive system consisting of over 30 proteins produced by the liver and found in circulating blood serum."— Presentation transcript:
The Complement system
The complement system
A defensive system consisting of over 30 proteins produced by the liver and found in circulating blood serum. Complement kills microbes in three different ways –1. opsonization –2. inflammation –3. Cytolysis
A Cascade system The complement works as a cascade system. –Cascade is when one reaction triggers another reaction which trigger others and so on. These types of systems can grow exponentially very fast.
Cascade activation Complement proteins are often designated by an uppercase letter C and are inactive until they are split into products. –Example: C1 When the products are split they become active. The active products are usually designated with a lower case a or b. –Example: C1a and C1b
Two Pathways The complement pathway can be activated by either of two different pathways. –Classical pathway (specific immune system) –alternative (non-specific immune system)
The Classical Pathway The classical pathway is considered to be part of the specific immune response because it relies on antibodies to initiate it. C1 becomes activated when it binds to the ends of antibodies
The building of a C3 activation complex Once C1 is activated, it activates 2 other complement proteins, C2 and C4 by cutting them in half C2 is cleaved into C2a and C2b C4 is cleaved into C4a and C4b Both C2a and C4b bind together on the surface of the bacteria C2b and C4a diffuse away C1= C1q, C1r, C1s activated C1q = C1 esterase activates C1r and C1s that cleave C4 and C2 C3 convertase
C3 Activation complex C2a and C4b bind together on the surface to form a C3 activation complex The function of the C3 activation complex is to activate C3 proteins. –This is done by cleaving C3 into C3a and C3b C3 convertase
C3b Many C3b molecules are produced by the C3 activation complex. The C3b bind to and coat the surface of the bacteria. C3b is an opsonin –Opsonins are molecules that bind both to bacteria and phagocytes –Opsonization increases phagocytosis by 1,000 fold.
C3a C3a increases the inflammatory response by binding to mast cells and causing them to release histamine
Building the C5 activation complex Eventially enough C3b is cleaved that the surface of the bacteria begins to become saturated with it. C2a and C4b which make up the C3 activation complex has a slight affinity for C3b and C3b binds to them When C3b binds to C2a and C4b it forms a new complex referred to as the C5 activation complex C5 convertase
The C5 activation complex The C5 activation complex (C2a, C4b, C3b) activates C5 proteins by cleaving them into C5a and C5b Many C5b proteins are produced by the C5activation complex. These C5b begin to coat the surface of the bacteria.
The function of C5a C5a disperses away from the bacteria. –Binds to mast cells and increases inflammation. –Most powerful chemotactic factor known for leukocytes
Building the Membrane Attack complex C5b on the surface of bacteria binds to C6 The binding of C6 to C5b activates C6 so that it can bind to C7 C7 binds to C8 which in turn binds to many C9’s Together these proteins form a circular complex called the Membrane attack complex (MAC)
Membrane Attack complex The MAC causes Cytolysis. –The circular membrane attack complex acts as a channel in which cytoplasm can rush out of and water rushes in. The bacterium’s inner integrity is compromised and it dies
Overview Requires antibodies
The alternative pathway The alternative pathway is part of the non- specific defense because it does not need antibodies to initiate the pathway. The alternative pathway is slower than the Classical pathway
The Alternative complement pathway
Initiation of The Alternative pathway C3 contains unstable thioester bond. This unstable bond makes C3 subject to slow spontaneous hydrolysis to C3b and C3a The C3b is able to bind to foreign surface antigens. Mammalian cells contain sialic acid which inactivates C3b Normal state: C3 C3a + C3b C3b degradation C3bH + I
Factor B C3b on the surface of a bacterium (ex. LPS) binds to another plasma protein called factor B LPS, LTA
Factor D The binding of C3b to factor B allows a protein enzyme called Factor D to cleave Factor B to Ba and Bb. Factor Bb remains bound to C3b while Ba and Factor D disperse away.
The C3 activation complex Properdin, also called factor P, binds to the C3bBb complex to stabilize it. C3bBbP make up the C3 activation complex for the alternative pathway
The C3 activation Complex The C3 activation complex causes the production of more C3b. This allows the initial steps of this pathway to be repeated and amplified 2X10 6 molecules can be generated in 5 minutes
C5 activation complex When an additional C3b binds to the C3 activation complex it converts it into a C5 activation complex. The C5 activation complex cleaves C5 into C5a and C5b. C5b begins the production of the MAC.