5What May Vitamin D Improve? -Improved bone health-Increased absorption of calcium-Reduced risk of falls and bone fractures-Reduced coronary artery disease-Improved muscular function-Lowering of high blood pressure-Improved blood sugar tolerance-Improved nerve function-Improved kidney function-Reduced risk of 17 cancers-Reduced influenza, cold infections, tuberculosis-Reduced risk of some types of dementia
6Low Vitamin D Risks Increased blood pressure - 2.4 times High blood sugar timesMetabolic syndrome – 4.0 times
7Vitamin D and BonesRickets prevention requires the least 20 ng/ml of storage version, 25(OH)D.Calcium absorption increases from 10-15% at low 25(OH)D levels to 30-40% at 32 ng/ml to 40 ng/ml. Optimum level was 40 ng/ml or higher.
8Vitamin D and the HeartLow levels of vitamin D associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality.One study: Low vitamin D risk increase ofCoronary Artery Disease - 45%Stroke - 78%Heart attack - 50%Death – %25-57% USA adults may be deficient
9Vitamin D and Critical Illness For critically ill patients in the hospital, low vitamin D levels have been found to be related toOrgan malfunctionLength of stayInfection rates
10Vitamin D and MSMultiple Sclerosis: Vitamin D levels of 40 ng/ml or higher may confer some protection against MS.Patients receiving Magnesium, Calcium and 5000 IU vitamin D significantly reduced MS exacerbations (14 vs 32).
11Vitamin D and MS: Is there any connection? Is there any proof that vitamin D supplements can prevent MS or keep symptoms of MS from worsening?Several studies have suggested that maintaining adequate levels of vitamin D may have a protective effect and lower the risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS). Other studies suggest that for people who already have MS, vitamin D may lessen the frequency and severity of their symptoms. More research is needed to assess these findings.When a person has MS, his or her immune system attacks the coating that protects the nerve cells. Research suggests that a connection between vitamin D and MS could be tied to the positive effects vitamin D has on the immune system.The link between vitamin D and MS is strengthened by the association between sunlight and the risk of MS. The farther away from the equator a person lives, the higher the risk of MS. Sunlight is the body's most efficient source for vitamin D — suggesting that exposure to sunlight may offer protection from MS.The Institute of Medicine recommends 600 international units (IUs) of vitamin D a day for adults ages 19 to 70. The recommendation increases to 800 IUs a day for adults age 71 and older.Some doctors question whether these levels are adequate and think that getting more vitamin D would benefit many people. However, the Institute of Medicine recommends that adults avoid taking more than 4,000 IUs a day.
12Vitamin D and FallsLow vitamin D may result in more falls and fractures since muscles contain vitamin D receptors.Vitamin D activation increases protein synthesis in muscles.13 studies using IU consistently demonstrated beneficial effects on muscle strength and balance with aged 60 or older.
13Vitamin D and CancerInverse correlation between incidence, mortality and or survival rates for many cancers including breast, colorectal, ovarian, and prostate cancers.Emerging evidence that more than 17 cancers are likely to be vitamin D sensitive.1000 IU/day could reduce cancers 7% for men, 9% for women in US.25(OH)D level of 52 ng/ml reduced breast cancer by 50%60-80 ng/ml may be optimal for most individuals25(OH)D level increase from 29 to 39 reduced cancer risk by 60% after 4 years.
14Vitamin D and the LungsAsthma: Early studies indicate may reduce severe exacerbations, exercise induced bronchoconstrictionLower respiratory tract infections are more frequent in those with low 25(OH)D levels.2000 IU Vitamin D abolished the seasonality of influenza and dramatically reduced the self-reported incidence.Vitamin D reduces inflammation and viral pathogens.
15Vitamin D and the Lungs 334 children 6-15 years One Vitamin D Influenza study showed:334 children 6-15 years50% D3 4 months vs placeboFlu: 10.8% (with D) vs 18.6%Asthma children – 93% reduced attacksLow vitamin D adults: double risk of viral infections
16Vitamin D and DementiaVitamin D may be primarily associated with cognitive domains other than memory , such as executive cognitive functions, depression, bipolar disorders, and schizophrenia.Low 25(OH)D may be a risk factor for cognitive impairment (41-60%).Receptors for Vitamin D are present in brain cells.Increased Vitamin D may improve cognitive function inpatients with Alzheimer's
17Vitamin D Controls Genes Gene direct or indirect control by vitamin D200 – 2000 genes which regulate:Regulate cell growth and prevent malignancyEnhance immune system (multiple mechanisms)Improve insulin production and sensitivityHeart contractionMaximize bone health
18Sun exposure pros and cons: Vitamin D From the SUNSun exposure pros and cons:5-6 times more deaths from internal cancers related to low vitamin D levels than skin cancersRegular moderate outdoor UV exposure increases survival of melanoma patients
19Current Vitamin D Recommendations Institute of Medicine recommendations:400 IU: infants 0 to 12 months600 IU: age 1 – 70 years800 IU: age above 704000 IU upper limitEndocrine Society's Clinical guidelines400 IU IU: infants 0 to 12 months600 IU – 1000 IU: age 1 – 18 years600 IU – 2000 IU: years800 IU – 2000 IU: above 701000 IU to 6 mo, 4000 IU over 8 yrs upper limit
20Malabsorption Drug Interactions and Storage Patients who may require more vitamin D intake include those with:Intestinal fat-malabsorption syndromesAnticonvulsive medicationsGlucocorticoids and related medicationsLess ability to absorb sunlight (elderly)Excess fat (vitamin D stored in fat is notavailable)
21Vitamin D Sources The Sunshine Vitamin Fortified foods: Typically supply 150 IU per day, but highly variable ( IU per day).Supplements:-Over-the-counter usually vitamin D3-Prescription versions are usually vitamin D2 (synthetic).-Vitamin D3 is more than three times powerful than D2.
23How Much Vitamin D is Needed? Estimated body requirements per day are IU.Obese and elderly may need the higher levels.10,000 IU per day may be the new recommended upper limit.(10)The only way to know how much is needed is to test 25(OH)D.Everyone should be tested!Goal: 25(OH)D between ng/ml after a consistent intake level over 2 months.100 IU of vitamin D raises 25(OH)D about 1 ng/ml.
24Who is at risk to overdose on Vitamin D? Anyone who takes Vitamin D supplements CAN take too much Vitamin D. But the majority of documented overdose on vitamin D are from:• Children whose parents accidentally give them massive doses of vitamin D• Elderly people who incorrectly take massive vitamin D dosages• Adults who take more than 10,000 IU's per day for long periods of time.• 'Industrial Accidents' where massive quantities of vitamin D are put into fortified foods in errorThese categories comprise nearly all people who have had an overdose on Vitamin D.