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Judith E. Brown Prof. Albia Dugger Miami-Dade College Vitamins and Your Health Unit 20.

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Presentation on theme: "Judith E. Brown Prof. Albia Dugger Miami-Dade College Vitamins and Your Health Unit 20."— Presentation transcript:

1 Judith E. Brown Prof. Albia Dugger Miami-Dade College Vitamins and Your Health Unit 20

2 Vitamin Facts Vitamins Chemical substances that perform specific functions in the body Essential nutrients Two basic types: Water soluble (B-complex, C) Fat soluble (D,E,K,A)

3 14 Known Vitamins

4 Deficiency and Excess Water soluble vitamins Only B 12 can be stored in the body, all others become deficient in weeks to months if not consumed Niacin, B 6, choline, and C cause ill effects if consumed in excessive amounts

5 Deficiency and Excess Fat soluble vitamins Stored in body fat, liver, other parts of the body Deficiencies take longer to develop Excess can build up in fat

6 Bogus Vitamins Some substances sold as vitamins are not vitamins

7 What Do Vitamins Do? Many vitamins are coenzymes Coenzymes Chemical substances that activate specific enzymes that increase the rate of chemical reactions in the body, such as breakdown of energy nutrients, or building body tissues

8 Recommended Intakes Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) To prevent deficiency and chronic disease Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) When data exist for set standards Adequate Intakes (AIs) When data are insufficient for set standards

9 Thiamin


11 Riboflavin


13 Niacin


15 Vitamin B 6


17 Folate


19 Vitamin B 12


21 Biotin


23 Pantothenic Acid


25 Vitamin C


27 Choline


29 Vitamin A


31 Beta-Carotene


33 Vitamin E


35 Vitamin D


37 Vitamin K


39 Avoiding Vitamin Deficiencies Folate: 400 mcg/day folic acid before and early during pregnancy reduces neural tube defects Reduces risk of dementia and certain cancers

40 Key Terms Dementia A usually progressive condition (such as Alzheimers disease) marked by development of memory impairment and inability to use or comprehend words or to plan and initiate complex behaviors

41 Avoiding Vitamin Deficiencies Adequate Vitamin A intake: Prevents some forms of blindness Reduces severity of measles and other infectious diseases Used to treat skin for acne, wrinkles, and liver (aging) spots

42 Avoiding Vitamin Deficiencies Vitamin D (sunshine vitamin) Facilitates calcium utilization Helps reduce chronic inflammation, which reduces risks of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, multiple sclerosis, certain cancers, and rheumatoid arthritis

43 Key Terms Chronic inflammation Low-grade inflammation that lasts weeks or years Inflammation First response of the bodys immune system to infection or irritation Triggers release of substances that promote oxidation and other harmful reactions

44 Recommended Vitamin D Intake Recommended intake levels for vitamin D are expected to increase Currently, for adults: 200 IU/day 800 IU/day is associated with lowered risks Sources: Direct sunlight exposure Fortified foods, supplements

45 Fortified with Vitamin D

46 Vitamin D and Sunlight Exposing the whole body to direct sunlight for 10-15 min generates 20,000 IU vitamin D Highest in light-skinned people Body stops producing vitamin D when adequate amounts have been produced

47 Vitamin D and UV Light Vitamin D status is lower in areas where sunlight is indirect or weak (e.g. Russia)

48 Antioxidant Vitamins Antioxidants Chemical substances that prevent or repair damage to cells caused by exposure to free radicals Includes beta-carotene, vitamin E, vitamin C Found in fruits, vegetables, whole grains

49 Key Terms Free radicals Chemical substances (usually oxygen or hydrogen) that are missing an electron Absence of an electron makes the substance reactive and prone to oxidizing nearby atoms or molecules by stealing an electron from them Damages DNA, cell membranes, and other cell components

50 Key Terms Beta-carotene is a precursor of vitamin A Precursor (provitamin) In nutrition, a nutrient that can be converted into another nutrient

51 Getting Enough Vitamins Five or more servings a day of a variety of fruits and vegetables can provide adequate amounts of vitamins Fortified foods can increase vitamin intake substantially

52 Food Sources of Vitamins Thiamin

53 Food Sources of Vitamins Riboflavin

54 Food Sources of Vitamins Niacin

55 Food Sources of Vitamins Vitamin B 6

56 Food Sources of Vitamins Folate

57 Food Sources of Vitamins Vitamin B 12

58 Food Sources of Vitamins Vitamin C

59 Food Sources of Vitamins Choline

60 Food Sources of Vitamins Vitamin A

61 Food Sources of Vitamins Beta-carotene

62 Food Sources of Vitamins Vitamin E

63 Food Sources of Vitamins Vitamin E (contd)

64 Food Sources of Vitamins Vitamin D

65 Preserving Vitamin Content Vitamin content of foods is affected by food preparation and storage methods Heat sensitive vitamins (vitamin C, folate) Water soluble vitamins

66 Vitamins Lost

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