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Vitamins and Your Health

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Presentation on theme: "Vitamins and Your Health"— Presentation transcript:

1 Vitamins and Your Health
Unit 20

2 Vitamin Facts Vitamins Two basic types:
Chemical substances that perform specific functions in the body Essential nutrients Two basic types: Water soluble (B-complex, C) Fat soluble (D,E,K,A)

3 14 Known Vitamins

4 Deficiency and Excess Water soluble vitamins
Only B12 can be stored in the body, all others become deficient in weeks to months if not consumed Niacin, B6, choline, and C cause ill effects if consumed in excessive amounts

5 Deficiency and Excess Fat soluble vitamins
Stored in body fat, liver, other parts of the body Deficiencies take longer to develop Excess can build up in fat

6 Bogus Vitamins Some substances sold as vitamins are not vitamins

7 What Do Vitamins Do? Many vitamins are coenzymes Coenzymes
Chemical substances that activate specific enzymes that increase the rate of chemical reactions in the body, such as breakdown of energy nutrients, or building body tissues

8 Recommended Intakes Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs)
To prevent deficiency and chronic disease Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) When data exist for set standards Adequate Intakes (AIs) When data are insufficient for set standards

9 Thiamin

10 Thiamin

11 Riboflavin

12 Riboflavin

13 Niacin

14 Niacin

15 Vitamin B6

16 Vitamin B6

17 Folate

18 Folate

19 Vitamin B12

20 Vitamin B12

21 Biotin

22 Biotin

23 Pantothenic Acid

24 Pantothenic Acid

25 Vitamin C

26 Vitamin C

27 Choline

28 Choline

29 Vitamin A

30 Vitamin A

31 Beta-Carotene

32 Beta-Carotene

33 Vitamin E

34 Vitamin E

35 Vitamin D

36 Vitamin D

37 Vitamin K

38 Vitamin K

39 Avoiding Vitamin Deficiencies
Folate: 400 mcg/day folic acid before and early during pregnancy reduces neural tube defects Reduces risk of dementia and certain cancers

40 Key Terms Dementia A usually progressive condition (such as Alzheimer’s disease) marked by development of memory impairment and inability to use or comprehend words or to plan and initiate complex behaviors

41 Avoiding Vitamin Deficiencies
Adequate Vitamin A intake: Prevents some forms of blindness Reduces severity of measles and other infectious diseases Used to treat skin for acne, wrinkles, and liver (aging) spots

42 Avoiding Vitamin Deficiencies
Vitamin D (“sunshine vitamin”) Facilitates calcium utilization Helps reduce chronic inflammation, which reduces risks of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, multiple sclerosis, certain cancers, and rheumatoid arthritis

43 Key Terms Chronic inflammation Inflammation
Low-grade inflammation that lasts weeks or years Inflammation First response of the body’s immune system to infection or irritation Triggers release of substances that promote oxidation and other harmful reactions

44 Recommended Vitamin D Intake
Recommended intake levels for vitamin D are expected to increase Currently, for adults: 200 IU/day 800 IU/day is associated with lowered risks Sources: Direct sunlight exposure Fortified foods, supplements

45 Fortified with Vitamin D

46 Vitamin D and Sunlight Exposing the whole body to direct sunlight for min generates 20,000 IU vitamin D Highest in light-skinned people Body stops producing vitamin D when adequate amounts have been produced

47 Vitamin D and UV Light Vitamin D status is lower in areas where sunlight is indirect or weak (e.g. Russia)

48 Antioxidant Vitamins Antioxidants
Chemical substances that prevent or repair damage to cells caused by exposure to free radicals Includes beta-carotene, vitamin E, vitamin C Found in fruits, vegetables, whole grains

49 Key Terms Free radicals
Chemical substances (usually oxygen or hydrogen) that are missing an electron Absence of an electron makes the substance reactive and prone to oxidizing nearby atoms or molecules by stealing an electron from them Damages DNA, cell membranes, and other cell components

50 Key Terms Beta-carotene is a precursor of vitamin A
Precursor (provitamin) In nutrition, a nutrient that can be converted into another nutrient

51 Getting Enough Vitamins
Five or more servings a day of a variety of fruits and vegetables can provide adequate amounts of vitamins Fortified foods can increase vitamin intake substantially

52 Food Sources of Vitamins

53 Food Sources of Vitamins

54 Food Sources of Vitamins

55 Food Sources of Vitamins
Vitamin B6

56 Food Sources of Vitamins

57 Food Sources of Vitamins
Vitamin B12

58 Food Sources of Vitamins
Vitamin C

59 Food Sources of Vitamins

60 Food Sources of Vitamins
Vitamin A

61 Food Sources of Vitamins

62 Food Sources of Vitamins
Vitamin E

63 Food Sources of Vitamins
Vitamin E (cont’d)

64 Food Sources of Vitamins
Vitamin D

65 Preserving Vitamin Content
Vitamin content of foods is affected by food preparation and storage methods Heat sensitive vitamins (vitamin C, folate) Water soluble vitamins

66 Vitamins Lost

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