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Augustin Janssens EC DG ENER D4 Dr. Augustin Janssens Europäische Atomenergiegemeinschaft EURATOM Entstehung und Stand des Entwurfs der EURATOM-Direktive.

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Presentation on theme: "Augustin Janssens EC DG ENER D4 Dr. Augustin Janssens Europäische Atomenergiegemeinschaft EURATOM Entstehung und Stand des Entwurfs der EURATOM-Direktive."— Presentation transcript:

1 Augustin Janssens EC DG ENER D4 Dr. Augustin Janssens Europäische Atomenergiegemeinschaft EURATOM Entstehung und Stand des Entwurfs der EURATOM-Direktive unter besonderer Berücksichtigung des Artikels 74 zu Radon in Gebäuden Revision and consolidation of Euratom Basic Safety Standards 1 European Commission DG Energy D4: Radiation Protection Augustin Janssens

2 Augustin Janssens EC DG ENER D4 2 Overview Revision and consolidation of BSS Exposure situations Existing exposure situations –Radon (workplace, dwellings) –Building materials

3 Augustin Janssens EC DG ENER D4 3 Revision and consolidation BSS DIRECTIVE Article 31 Group of Experts since 2005 Topical issues –natural radiation sources –exemption, clearance, graded approach WP “Recast” –First consolidated draft text: meeting in June 2009 –Final text for Article 31 Experts in November 2009 Approval of draft text and related Opinion –on Commission: –Impact Assessment Report –Inter-Service consultation –Translation –Draft Commission proposal adopted in September 2011 –Opinion of Economic and Social Committee Final Commission proposal in May 2012 EP and Council? Member States? 2017?

4 Augustin Janssens EC DG ENER D4 4 RECAST Better legislation - simplification Directives: –Basic Safety Standards (workers, general public): 1996 –Patients/Medical Directive: 1997 –Informing the public on measures in the event of a radiological emergency: 1989 –Outside Workers: 1990 –High Activity Sealed Sources (HASS): 2003 Radon Recommendation 90/143/Euratom Recast: –In principle no discussion of unmodified text In practice: too many changes with cross-cutting impact –Hence: “consolidation”

5 Augustin Janssens EC DG ENER D4 5 Revision of EU-BSS Consolidation of current Directives Allow for ICRP/IAEA –Exposure situations rather than processes: practices/interventions –Incorporate natural radiation sources strengthen the requirements

6 Augustin Janssens EC DG ENER D4 6 ICRP Publication 103 Scope: (176) … applied to all sources and all exposed individuals, in the following three exposure situations: –planned: … involving the planned operation of sources (practices in operation) –existing: … that already exists when a decision on control has to be taken, including natural background radiation … –emergency exposure situations Principle of Justification: (206) … introduction of new activities where radiological protection is planned in advance and the necessary actions can be taken on the source (207) … where exposures can be controlled mainly by action to modify the pathways of exposure and not by action on the source Confusion because “planned” was associated with the applicable regime of regulatory control : notification, registration and licensing of practices. Euratom BSS: any (industrial) activity for which an undertaking or employer has legal responsibility for its conduct and for the resulting exposure should be managed in the same way as practices

7 Augustin Janssens EC DG ENER D4 Exposure situations Euratom approach Existing: resulting from features of the location (not the type of activity) indoor Radon (ingress from soil) commodities managed together with the exposure situation: –building materials (gamma exposure, radon exhalation) –foodstuffs (post-accidental situation Planned: new source or new pathway of exposure resulting from the activity industries processing naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) operation of aircraft Occupational exposure: exposure of workers incurred in the course of their work –responsibility of the employer for exposure to radon at work 7

8 Augustin Janssens EC DG ENER D4 8 Table of contents of revised EU-BSS Preamble Chapter I Subject Matter and Scope Chapter II Definitions Chapter III System of Protection Chapter IV Requirements for Education, Training and Information Chapter V Justification and Regulatory Control of practices Chapter VI Protection of Workers, Apprentices and Students Chapter VII Protection of Patients and other Individuals submitted to Medical Exposure Chapter VIII Protection of Members of the Public Chapter IX Protection of the Environment Chapter X Requirements for Regulatory Control Chapter XI Final provisions

9 Augustin Janssens EC DG ENER D4 9 VII: gives definition and use of the activity concentration index for the gamma radiation emitted by building materials IX: indicative list of types of building materials considered for control measures with regard to their emitted gamma radiation XVI: indicative list of items to be covered in the national action plans for radon in dwellings and workplaces Annexes Existing exposure situations

10 Augustin Janssens EC DG ENER D4 10 System of Protection Principles Justification of practices Optimisation of protection –constraints in planned exposure situations –reference levels in existing or emergency situations Dose limits –effective dose (stochastic effects) –organ dose (tissue effects)

11 Augustin Janssens EC DG ENER D4 11 Reference levels Bands of reference levels for public exposure and corresponding societal criteria RL in the range 20 mSv – 100 mSv for emergency exposure situations –below 20 mSv if no disproportionate detriment or excessive cost of countermeasures RL in the range 1 to 20 mSv per year for existing exposure situations –indoor radon exposure –long-term post-accidental management RL below 1 mSv for specific pathways of exposure (building materials)

12 Augustin Janssens EC DG ENER D4 12 EC Recommendation on indoor exposure to radon (90/143/Euratom) Establish a system for reducing any exposure to indoor radon concentrations. Apply principle of optimisation. Decisions should be made on annually-averaged radon measurements Develop criteria for identifying regions, sites and building characteristics likely to cause high indoor radon levels Reference level for existing buildings –400 Bq/m 3 Design level for construction of new buildings –200 Bq/m 3

13 Augustin Janssens EC DG ENER D4 13 Natural Radiation Sources in present BSS Directive 96/29/Euratom Exposure to radon in dwellings was not included in the scope Radon in workplaces –Addressed in Title VII (Natural Radiation Sources) Identification of “work activities” of concern –Large flexibility for Member States on measures taken No specific requirements on building materials

14 Augustin Janssens EC DG ENER D4 14 Guidance BSS Directive 96/29/Euratom Radiation Protection Series Implementation of Title VII to occupational exposure (RP 88) –Concentrate on highest exposures, and where actions are most likely to be effective. –Surveys of radon exposure in different types of workplaces –Action Levels for radon: 500 – 1000 Bq/m 3 –When radon concentrations remain above the Action Level the principles of BSS should apply (controlled areas, monitoring and dose limits) –Information and advice to employers on remedial actions Building materials (RP 112) –Definition of activity concentration index I = C 226 Ra /300 + C 232 Th /200 + C 40 K /3000 –Radon exhalation: ”When gamma doses are limited to levels below 1mSv/y, the 226 Ra concentration in the materials is limited, in practice, to a level which is unlikely to cause indoor radon concentrations exceeding … (200 Bq/m 3 ).”

15 Augustin Janssens EC DG ENER D4 15 New BSS: Radon action plan ”Member States shall establish an action plan to manage long term risks from radon exposures in dwellings, buildings with public access and workplaces for any source of radon ingress, whether from soil, building materials and water.” –Take into account issues specified in Annex XVI

16 Augustin Janssens EC DG ENER D4 16 Radon Action Plan i ndicative list of issues in Annex XVI Assign responsibilities, allocate resources for measurements and remedial actions Criteria for delineation of radon prone areas Criteria for identification of buildings of concern Criteria for accreditation of measurement and remediation services Strategy for increasing public awareness in relation to smoking Long term goals for reducing lung cancer

17 Augustin Janssens EC DG ENER D4 17 Member States shall establish national reference levels for indoor annual average radon concentrations, not exceeding: –200 Bq/m 3 for new dwellings and new buildings with public access –300 Bq/m 3 for existing dwellings –300 Bq/m 3 for existing buildings with public access In specific cases, allowing for occupancy time, a higher reference level with a maximum of 1000 Bq/m 3 Chapter VIII Protection of the public Radon in dwellings

18 Augustin Janssens EC DG ENER D4 18 Chapter VIII Protection of the public Radon in dwellings Member States shall: identify dwellings above reference level and encourage remedial action ensure measurements in buildings with public access in radon prone areas establish building codes to prevent radon ingress from soil and building materials provide information (local and national) on radon situation, risks and means for reducing radon concentrations

19 Augustin Janssens EC DG ENER D4 19 Chapter VI Protection of workers Radon in workplaces Establishment of national reference level, –not exceeding 1000 Bq/m 3 Measurements necessary in –workplaces located at ground floor or at basement level in radon prone areas –specific types of workplaces identified in action plan Principle of optimisation –Reduce radon concentrations or exposures If levels stay above reference level despite actions –Manage as a planned exposure situation –Dose limit and requirements for occupational exposure apply Control if individual exposures > 6 mSv/year

20 Augustin Janssens EC DG ENER D4 Discussions in AQG Same reference level (RL) for different types of buildings (300 Bq/m³) including workplaces? –buildings with public access: also workplaces Optional higher RL in workplaces, or merely a threshold for regulatory control (6 mSv/y)? –ICRP TG: 2 nd RL if first one is exceeded Lower RL for new buildings? –or WHO value (100 Bq/m³), not as a RL but as long term objective and basis of building codes Radon Prone Areas? ("gefährdet") 20

21 Augustin Janssens EC DG ENER D4 21 Building materials Reference level of 1 mSv per year –for indoor external exposure from building materials in excess of the background outdoor external exposure Below 1 mSv/y the material is exempted and free on the market in EU –above 1 mSv/y the national authority may consider appropriate control measures Information about the materials relevant for compliance with building codes should be available before their placing on the market I: conventional activity concentration index (RP 112) –two categories (reflecting whether the material is used in bulk or superficial quantities) Index 1 or 6, to be defined in national building codes –CEN/TC standards (construction products)

22 Augustin Janssens EC DG ENER D4 22 Building Materials

23 Augustin Janssens EC DG ENER D4 NORM residues Clearance criteria lower activity concentrations NORM materials Regulated NORM INDUSTRY 300µSv Exempted industry 1 Bq/g practices involving artificial radionuclides Nuclear fuel cycle 10µSv specific clearance levels 23 BUILDING MATERIALS

24 Augustin Janssens EC DG ENER D4 NORM residues Clearance criteria lower activity concentrations NORM materials Regulated NORM INDUSTRY 300µSv Exempted industry 1 Bq/g practices involving artificial radionuclides Nuclear fuel cycle 10µSv specific clearance levels 24 drinking water standards TID : 0.1 mSv

25 Augustin Janssens EC DG ENER D4 Conclusions 25

26 Augustin Janssens EC DG ENER D4 Conclusions 26 Indoor Radon now fully incorporated in Radiation Protection legislation –Distinction between types of buildings: residential dwellings, public access, workplaces –or single reference level for buildings? Effectiveness, transparency, proportionality –Radon Action Plan and Radon Prone Areas –Regulatory control of occupational exposure to Rn in specific workplaces –Coherence with NORM industries and Uranium mining Building Materials now regulated –Construction Products Directive CEN/TC Standards

27 Energy Vielen Dank!


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