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This project has received funding from the European Union‘s Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under.

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Presentation on theme: "This project has received funding from the European Union‘s Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under."— Presentation transcript:

1 This project has received funding from the European Union‘s Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement No

2 Dr. Barbara Metzler-Zebeli Mr. Andor Molnar Ms. Janine Scholz University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna Dr. Stefan G. Buzoianu Dr. Peadar G. Lawlor Ms. Ursula McCormack Moorepark Research Centre, Teagasc, Ireland Improving feed efficiency by understanding the intestinal bacterial network in pigs and poultry

3 This project has received funding from the European Union‘s Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement No Introduction

4 This project has received funding from the European Union‘s Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement No ECO-FCE overview Feb 2013 – Feb partners 7 WPs Overall objectives improve food security by optimising the feed efficiency in pigs and broilers without negatively affecting animal welfare and meat quality reduce the ecological footprint of the pig and broiler production systems WP 3 objective to examine the gut structure, function, microbiota and metagenomics in animals divergent for feed efficiency

5 This project has received funding from the European Union‘s Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement No Work Package 3 Intestinal structure & function Intestinal health Intestinal microbiota Animal performance Genetics RFI Low Medium High Health & welfare Meat quality Genomics

6 This project has received funding from the European Union‘s Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement No Determination of feed efficiency Residual Feed Intake (RFI) = difference between observed and predicted feed intake, with lower RFI values indicating greater energy efficiency Selection of high and low feed efficient animals - based on Residual Feed Intake Where a is the intercept and b 1 and b 2 are partial regression coefficients of feed intake (FI) on BW 0.75 and body weight gain (BWG), respectively. RFI = FI [a + b 1 * BW b 2 * BWG] Other measures of feed efficiency Feed efficiency = gain (g) / feed intake (g) Feed conversion ratio (FCR) = feed intake (g) / gain (g) RG = BWG [a + b 1 * BW b 2 * FI] RIG = (RG/SD RG) - (RFI/SD RFI)

7 This project has received funding from the European Union‘s Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement No Feed efficiency in monogastric livestock species Feed efficiency Genetics Diet Rearing environment Age Gut commensal microbiota Substantial variation in feed efficiency between individual animals. Great variation in gut commensal microbiota between individuals.

8 This project has received funding from the European Union‘s Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement No Role of the intestinal microbiota Benefits to the host intestinal maturation inhibition of pathogen growth nutrient salvaging detoxification production of vitamins Costs to the host competition for nutrients immune activation production of toxins opportunistic toxin reabsorption mucolytic activity

9 This project has received funding from the European Union‘s Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement No Effect of host microbiota on host metabolism and hormone secretion Intestinal microbiota can redirect energy partitioning to adipose tissue and reduce fatty acid oxidation. Bäckhed (2011) Ann Nutr Metab 58(suppl 2):44 Implications for feed use efficiency and carcass composition in livestock animals?

10 This project has received funding from the European Union‘s Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement No Effect of gut microbiota composition on body weight Changes in Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species Obese humans & mice: Firmicutes  Bacteroidetes  Low-calorie diet Firmicutes  Bacteroidetes  Actinobacteria  Bacteroidetes  no difference in Firmicutes Methanogenic archaea  Meat-producing monogastric livestock species are young, fast growing and lean animals Are the key players the same as in human obesity models ? wikipedia.org Requena et al. (2013) Trends Food Sci Tech 34:44

11 This project has received funding from the European Union‘s Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement No Chickens

12 This project has received funding from the European Union‘s Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement No Diet-related cecal microbiota and performance in male chickens Torok et al. (2011) AEM 77: 5868 Diet is the most influencing factor affecting feed efficiency. Caecal microbial communities by diet Caecal microbial communities identified as being from birds with improved performance or poorer performance

13 This project has received funding from the European Union‘s Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement No Batch to batch variation in caecal microbiota of chickens Stanley et al. (2013) PloS ONE 8(12): e84290 PCA plot of caecal microbiota. The plot is based on between groups (trials) analysis. 3 different batches of chickens Very different microbiota profiles across chicken batches Very different feed use efficiencies across chicken batches High variation in caecal microbiota partly due to lack of colonisation of the chickens by maternally derived bacteria  High hygiene levels in modern commercial hatcheries remove natural bacteria  Environmental microbiota from transport boxes, first feed and staff people High variation in caecal microbiota partly due to lack of colonisation of the chickens by maternally derived bacteria  High hygiene levels in modern commercial hatcheries remove natural bacteria  Environmental microbiota from transport boxes, first feed and staff people

14 This project has received funding from the European Union‘s Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement No Fecal community of high and low feed efficient broiler chickens Singh et al. (2014) J Appl Genet 55: 145

15 This project has received funding from the European Union‘s Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement No Experimental design: 2 partner institutions (AFBI & Vetmeduni) performed identical chicken experiments with 3 batches of 50/64 chicks Similar chicken genetic: Cobb 500FF Similar maize-soybean meal diets (starter, grower, and finisher diets) No in-feed antibiotics and any other gut health-related additives Chickens were individually housed Best and worst feed efficient chickens were identified using Residual Feed Intake On day 42, samples were collected for: Ileal and caecal digesta for metagenomics and microbial metabolites Tissue of duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caeca for gut function and structure Characterisation of differences in gut microbiota and gut function of chickens with good and poor feed efficiency

16 This project has received funding from the European Union‘s Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement No Residual feed intake of good and poor feed efficient broiler chickens Great variation in residual feed intake and thus in feed use efficiency.

17 This project has received funding from the European Union‘s Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement No Microbial metagenome of good and poor feed efficient chickens Under construction Shotgun sequencing using MiSeq Technology (Illumina)

18 This project has received funding from the European Union‘s Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement No Jejunal electrophysiological characteristics of good and poor feed efficient broiler chickens Good feed efficient females showed lower tissue resistance, higher conductance and short-circuit current indicating a higher ion flux and permeability of the jejunal mucosa Gut electrophysiology was performed using Ussing chamber technique. Tissue originated from the distal jejunum. Influencing factors: Host genome or gut microbiota ?

19 This project has received funding from the European Union‘s Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement No Pigs

20 This project has received funding from the European Union‘s Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement No Literature Little data available in pigs ↓ Bacteroidetes & ↑ Firmicutes in obese pigs (Pedersen et al., 2013) ↑ Firmicutes & ↓ β-Proteobacteria in ERS-fed pigs (Haenen et al., 2013) Protein, CHO and lipid metabolic pathways affected by intestinal microbial profile mice (Antunes et al., 2011) pigs (Mulder et al., 2009)

21 This project has received funding from the European Union‘s Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement No P Screening on feed efficiency in pigs P weaning d 42d 84 FF d 112 F I C Teagasc × 3 AFBI Vetmeduni 46 litters Common genetics Common & site- specific boars Common diets Common protocols Pigs divergent for RFI F – faecal I – ileal digesta C – caecal digesta P – performance

22 This project has received funding from the European Union‘s Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement No P P PP Microbiota profiling d 0 (weaning)d 42d 84 d 126d 139 FFFFF I C F – faecal; I – ileal digesta; C – caecal digesta; P – performance Compositional analysis 16S rRNA gene sequencing Functionality Shotgun metagenomics Illumina

23 This project has received funding from the European Union‘s Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement No Progress on microbiota profiling Samples collected DNA extracted 16S rRNA gene sequencing – results being analysed Shotgun metagenomics samples being prepared results ~ Oct 2014

24 This project has received funding from the European Union‘s Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement No Manipulation of GIT microbial profile Low RFI Additives

25 This project has received funding from the European Union‘s Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement No Anaerobically processed diluted 1:6 strained centrifuged (6000 × G for 15 minutes) frozen at -80°C in 10% glycerol Inoculation with faecal inoculum from good feed converters No inoculum Single inoculation Multiple inoculation Inoculum No inoculum Single inoculation Multiple inoculation Sows Offspring

26 This project has received funding from the European Union‘s Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement No Optimum strategy – inoculum Prebiotics – alone or in combination Monitoring and sampling of offspring through their lifetime performance health intestinal microbiota Nutritional intervention

27 This project has received funding from the European Union‘s Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement No Acknowledgements ECO-FCE has received funding from the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration (FP7 2007/2013) under grant agreement No Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme

28 This project has received funding from the European Union‘s Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement No Thank you

29 This project has received funding from the European Union‘s Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement No

30 ECO-FCE Gut structure, function, microbiota and metagenomics Objectives: 1. To enhance our understanding of the interactions between gut microbiome and host genome in pigs and chickens. This task will be achieved by employing cutting-edge 16S rRNA-specific and shotgun metagenomics. 2. Using this improved understanding, strategies to improve feed conversion efficiency through gut microbiome manipulation in embryonic and subsequent developmental stages will be developed. Objectives: 1. To enhance our understanding of the interactions between gut microbiome and host genome in pigs and chickens. This task will be achieved by employing cutting-edge 16S rRNA-specific and shotgun metagenomics. 2. Using this improved understanding, strategies to improve feed conversion efficiency through gut microbiome manipulation in embryonic and subsequent developmental stages will be developed. Hypothesis: It is assumed that the gut microbiome of pigs and broiler chickens with good and poor feed use efficiency differs in key members, thereby influencing the intestinal and metabolic host response, production efficiency and host health. Hypothesis: It is assumed that the gut microbiome of pigs and broiler chickens with good and poor feed use efficiency differs in key members, thereby influencing the intestinal and metabolic host response, production efficiency and host health.

31 This project has received funding from the European Union‘s Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement No NF-  B Interactions between gut microbiome and host physiology and health Bäckhed (2011) Ann Nutr Metab 58(suppl 2): 44; Twarziok et al. (2014) Mol Inf 33: 171


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