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SODIUM BICARBONATE IN POULTRY NUTRITION. INTRODUCTION Poultry industry in recent years has occupied a leading role in many parts of the world since it.

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Presentation on theme: "SODIUM BICARBONATE IN POULTRY NUTRITION. INTRODUCTION Poultry industry in recent years has occupied a leading role in many parts of the world since it."— Presentation transcript:

1 SODIUM BICARBONATE IN POULTRY NUTRITION

2 INTRODUCTION Poultry industry in recent years has occupied a leading role in many parts of the world since it has undergone very rapid development. The potential for further growth is obvious in view of the nutritional value of meat and eggs. The continuos demand for an improved productive level forced many to use nutritional manipulations both in thermoneutral conditions as well as in high temperatures and humidity conditions.

3 INTRODUCTION Among these nutritional manipulations is the electrolyte supplementation to maintain a correct plasma acid-base balance in order to improve the productive performance of poultry. Sodium bicarbonate is a cheap salt that is widely available and its beneficial effect is confirmed by many (Teeter et al., 1985; Bonsembiante et al., 1986, 1988, 1989, 1990; Whiting et al., 1991).

4 OBJECTIVES A series of trials were performed to evaluate the effect of different levels of sodium bicarbonate on the productive performance, physiological response and meat quality of turkeys, broilers and guinea fowls.

5 Trial performed on turkey meat production 145 male turkeys, 60 d, (B.U.T. Big 6, 4.9 kg). 2 experimental groups in 14 pens (density 0.5 m 2 /bird), (10 or 11 bird/pen). Two diets, Control T(0%) and B (2%) of NaHCO 3. From July to October into 3 periods (4wks/period). Bird’s rearing conditions

6 Materials and methods Temp. and humidity (L.S.I, TIGH-1 TH). Light intensity (Delta OHM HD 8366). Ammonia concentration (Dragher pump). Body weight, feed intake and health status. Diet and water analysis.

7 Materials and methods Physiological measurements and blood sampling, Hitachi-911 (Boehringer Mannheim). Slaughtering yields and carcass composition. pH (Delta ohm) and color measurements (Minolta CR-300 colorimeter). Drip loss (after freezing, -20° C), 250 g meat. Cooking loss. Shear force, Warner-Bratzer Shear Device (INSTRON).

8 Experimental conditions Water Characteristics: –pH 6.85 ± 0.07. –Conductibility 315 ± 6.4 µS/cm-20 ° C. –K 1.1 ± 0.03 mg/l. –Na 3.8 ± 0.03 mg/l. –Cl5.0 ± 0.08 mg/l. Environmental conditions –Temperature 25.2±2.4°C. –Relative humidity 82.6-91.7%.

9 Average temperature (°C) recorded during the turkeys trial 25.2 ±2.4ºC hrs

10 Average humidity % recorded during turkeys trial 82.6-91.7% hrs

11 Ingredients (%) of the experimental diet

12 Chemical composition of the diet (% on as fed basis)

13 Turkeys productive performance A, B, : P<0.01; a, b: p<0.05 a, ß: P<0.01

14 Turkeys productive performance for the whole period Control (T) Bicarbonate (B) Whole period (0-85d) Initial live wtg49514874 Final live wt.g18615 ß 19082 a Growth rateg/d161 b 167 a Feed intakeg/d320330 Feed conversion ratiog/g1.991.97 a, b:P<0.05 a, ß: P<0.01

15 The effect of different levels of NaHCO 3 on growth rate

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19 Turkeys meat quality parameters

20 Trial performed on poultry meat production Bird’s rearing conditions 369 male, 21d old chicks (Cobb 500, 1009g). 4 groups in 24 pens (6pens/treatment), 10 birds/m 2 (15 bird/pen). 4 diets, control C (0%), B 1 (0.3%), B 2 (0.6% ) and B 3 (0.9%) NaHCO 3. During July and August, into 2 periods (14days /period).

21 Temp. and humidity (L.S.I, TIGH-1 TH). Light intensity (Delta OHM HD 8366). Ammonia concentration (Dragher pump). Body weight, feed intake and health status. Diet and water analysis. Materials and methods

22 Physiological measurements and blood sampling, Hitachi-911 (Boehringer Mannheim). Slaughtering yields and carcass composition. pH and color measurements (Delta ohm). Drip loss (after freezing, -20° C), 100 g meat. Cooking loss. Shear force, Warner-Bratzer Shear Device (INSTRON).

23 Experimental conditions Water Characteristics : –pH 7.48 ± 0.08. –Conductibility440 ± 6µS/cm-20 ° C. –K 1.8 ± 0.14 mg/l. –Na 6.4 ± 0.05 mg/l. –Cl11.7± 0.95 mg/l. Environmental conditions –Temperature 26.6±2.3°C. –Relative humidity 75-82%.

24 Average temperature (ºC) recorded during the broilers trial hrs Temp.Temp. 26.6±2.3ºC

25 Average humidity % recorded during the broilers trial Av.humidity 75-82%

26 Ingredients (%) of the experimental diet (I period)

27 Ingredients (%) of the experimental diet (II period)

28 Chemical composition of the diet (% on as fed basis) I period

29 Chemical composition of the diet (% on as fed basis) II period

30 Broilers productive performance during two periods a, b:P<0.05

31 Broilers productive performance during the whole period (28d)

32 The effect of different levels of NaHCO 3 on FCR in broilers trial

33 Broilers blood parameters (metabolites)

34 Broilers blood parameters (pH and gases)

35 Slaughtering yields and carcass data

36 Broilers meat quality

37 Trial performed on Guinea fowls Bird’s rearing conditions 432 male guinea fowls, 24d, (ISA, 509 g). 4 groups, 24 pens (6 pens/treatment) (18 birds/ pen) 4 diets, control C (0%), B 1 (0.3%), B 2 (0.6%) and B 3, (0.9%) NaHCO 3. During September and October in 2 periods, (19 days/ period).

38 Materials and methods Temp. and humidity (L.S.I, TIGH-1 TH). Light intensity (Delta OHM HD 8366). Ammonia concentration (Dragher pump). Body weight, feed intake, water intake and health status. Diet and water analysis.

39 Materials and methods Physiological measurements and blood sampling, Hitachi-911 (Boehringer Mannheim). Slaughtering yields and carcass composition. pH and color measurements (Delta ohm). Drip loss (after freezing, -20° C), 70 g meat. Cooking loss. Shear force, Warner-Bratzer Shear Device (INSTRON).

40 Experimental conditions Water Characteristics: pH 7.11 ± 0.09 Conductibility 385 ± 6 µS/cm-20 °C K 1.5 ± 0.11 mg/l. Na 6.1 ± 0.07 mg/l. Cl10.7 ± 0.81 mg/l. Environmental conditions: Temperature 20.5 ± 1.8°C. Relative humidity 82.1 ± 6.4%.

41 Ingredients (%) of the experimental diet

42 Chemical composition of the diet (% on as fed basis)

43 Guinea fowls productive performance in two periods

44 Guinea fowls productive performance during the whole period (38d)

45 The effect of different levels of NaHCO 3 on feed intake in guinea fowls trial

46 Guinea fowls blood parameters (metabolites)

47 Guinea fowls blood parameters (pH and gases)

48 Slaughtering yields and carcass data

49 Meat quality parameters

50 Then after all these trials on us what conclusions you have got?… CONCLUSIONS

51  Turkey trial  Growth rate increased 4% with 2% NaHCO 3.  No significant effect in feed intake, (reduced without affecting body gain).  pCO 2 and HCO 3 - were slightly increased, (but not significantly) with the 2% NaHCO 3.  Shear force was significantly improved.  Increasing dEB from 22 to 42 meq/100g had positively influenced growth rate.

52 CONCLUSIONS  Broilers trial  No significant effect on growth rate.  Feed consumption decreased significantly with the increased amount of NaHCO 3 (5.4%).  Feed conversion ratio was significantly improved.  pCO 2 and HCO 3 - were significantly increased by NaHCO 3 addition.  Raising the dEB from 20-30 meq/100 g can positively affect broilers productive performance.

53 CONCLUSIONS  Guinea fowls trial  No significant effect on growth rate.  Feed intake was significantly reduced by the higher % of NaHCO 3, while water intake was significantly increased.  Feed conversion ratio was significantly improved by the higher % of NaHCO 3.  pCO 2 and HCO 3 - were significantly increased with high levels of NaHCO 3.

54 CONCLUSIONS  Increasing the electrolyte balance from 16-27meq/100g might achieve better productive performance.  0.3% of sodium gave positive reactions in guinea fowls, this notify us to study sodium requirements for this species in more details.  More deep research on this species concerning the effect of dEB status is needed.

55 CONCLUSIONS  In general and in all species studied:  No significant effect on metabolic profile parameters.  Slaughtering and carcass yields were not significantly different (except in turkeys).  No significant effect on meat quality parameters.

56 Thank you very much for your attention


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