Presentation on theme: "Corpus Based study of Relative clauses in Hindi & Telugu Transfer grammar rules for relative clauses Viswanatha Naidu Y IIIT-Hyderabad 20-02-09"— Presentation transcript:
Corpus Based study of Relative clauses in Hindi & Telugu Transfer grammar rules for relative clauses Viswanatha Naidu Y IIIT-Hyderabad SCONLI-3
SCONLI-3, India2 OUTLINE Introduction Hindi Relative clause overview Telugu Relative clause overview Transfer grammar & Rules Examples Conclusion
SCONLI-3, India3 Relative clause overview Restricts or qualify the meaning of the noun in NP Languages like English explicitly indicate with relative pronouns Relative pronouns occur in the initial or part of PP or NP
SCONLI-3, India4 Types of Relative clause There are two types of relative clauses 1.Restrictive clause 2.Non-restrictive clause
SCONLI-3, India5 Restrictive Non-Restrictive Helps the hearer/ reader to identify the referent of the noun phrase. Rel. pronoun can be dropped Serves to give hearer an added piece of information identified entity Provides additional info. Use of Proper nouns Very often the distinction expressed intonationally, but also orthographically with punctuation marker. How does he/she know the distinction?
SCONLI-3, India6 Restrictive clause The young linguist whom I saw in the conference lives in Hyderabad. Non-Restrictive clause Chomsky, who arrived for the conference lives in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
SCONLI-3, India7 The accessibility hierarchy defined (comrie, 1977) as Subject Direct object Non-direct object Possessive Easy to relativize subjects than it is to relativize any of the other positions
SCONLI-3, India8 Hindi also has the Restrictive – Non-Restrictive Distinction. Restrictive clause E.g. jo billi mere gara mem hai vaha cUhe se DartA hai Rel. cat.3. sg my house.nom in is that. Rat Abl afraid is ‘The cat in my house is afraid of Rat.’ Non-restrictive clause Chandrababu Naidu, jo Andhra Pradesh kA mukhya mantrI REL GEN chief.M minister.M thA Ajkal yahAM hai. Was.sg now a days here is Chandrababu Naidu who was the CM of AP is here now a days.
SCONLI-3, India9 Hindi Relative clauses overview Two types of relative clauses 1.Correlative clause 2.Participle clause
SCONLI-3, India10 Correlative clause | Participle clause Have an explicit relative markers. These markers will be preceded by the nouns Appear initial position of the clauses No explicit markers Two types of participle relatives, 1.Present Participle 2.Past Participle Modify head noun as relative clause do.
SCONLI-3, India11 Correlative clauses In correlatives any NP position can be relativized. Instrumental Relativization jis cAku se maine murgI ko kAtA vaha bahut tej thA REL knife.M with I.nom hen.M. Accu cut that very sharp was.M The knife with which I cut the hen was very sharp Like Subjects, objects, Indirect, Oblique including Instruments, locatives etc.
SCONLI-3, India12 Present participle & Past participle All verbs yield present participle forms, which have two functions. 1.Adjectival 2.Adverbial Inflect for Person, Number, Gender. Appear in the form (verb +-tA +huA). Only a restricted set of verbs yield past participle forms, which indicate achievement. which have two functions. 1.Adjectival 2.Adverbial Inflect for Person, Number, Gender. Appear in the form (verb + -A + huA).
SCONLI-3, India13 Hindi does not allow to relativize the Instrument, locative, etc. It allows only subjects and objects. Instrumental Relativization *mere dwArA kelA kAtA huA cAkU le jAo I by Banana cut did. knife.M take away Take away the knife with which I cut the Banana Locative Relativization *mere dwArA baitI huI kurcI bahut mAngI hai. I by sit.F did. Chsir very costly. is The chair in which I sat is costly. Subject Relativization dauDA huA laDkA acAnak ruk gayA running was boy suddenly stop. Came. ‘The boy who was running suddenly came to stop’
SCONLI-3, India14 Telugu Relative clause overview Telugu also has two types of relative clauses 1. Correlative clauses 2. Participle clauses But, correlatives are not normal in Telugu (Bh.Krishnamurthy) used in more formal speech. My experience of working in corpus gave the same experience as I hardly found the correlatives eppudu Akalaite appudu tinAli. whenever. Hungry that+time eat. More naturally it can be expressed using participles
SCONLI-3, India15 Participle Relative clauses E.g. ADutunna abbAyi bAwunnAdu. play.v.adj.conti boy.Nom good.3.sg.. M Accessibility hierarchy of Participle Relativization in Telugu is more frequent, Higher, (oblique forms can also be relativized). Participles form by means of non-finite construction Do not inflect person, number, gender The boy, who is playing is good.
SCONLI-3, India16 MT ARCHITECTURE ANALYSIS GENERATOR TRANSFER POS TAGGAER CHUNKER MORPH ANALYZER TOKENIZER PARSER NER WSD Etc. TRANSFER GRAMMAR 1.Lexical grammar 2.Structural grammar TRANSILITERATION Default features TL specific features Word generator Etc.
SCONLI-3, India17 Transfer grammar One of the approaches to Machine Translation Captures ‘structural differences’ between SL & TL Aim to develop the MT system
SCONLI-3, India18 input output Removing specific features of grammar in SL Bridging the gap between SL & TL Lexical & Structural Transfer Rules Nouns Verbs Adjectives Adverbs Prepositions Conjunctions Miscellaneous Final adjustment by the generator according to the TL features ORGANIZATION OF TRANSFER GRAMMAR
SCONLI-3, India19 Relative clause rules जो आँधी कल आयी थी वो बहुत नुकसान कर गयी నిన్న వచ్చిన తుఫాను చాలా నష్టము చేసింది jo AmdhI kal AyI thI vah bahut nuksAn kar gayI Rel. storm.F yesterday come.Pef.F.sg Past.F.sg that much damage.M do go.PerfF.sg ninna vaccina tufAnu cAlA nasTam cesindi. Yesterday.Nom come.past.verbal.adj storm.Nom much damage did.Non-Mascu.3.sg ‘The storm that raged yesterday did a great deal of damage’
SCONLI-3, India20 वो बहुत नुकसान कर गयी Null చాలా నష్టము చేసింది Till now mapping between main clause-main clause there are no problems except the correlative marker vo bahut nuksAn kar_gayI Null cAlA nasTam cesindi Let’s see the sub-ordinate clause mapping
SCONLI-3, India21 जो आँधी कल आयी - थी Null నిన్న తుఫాను వచ్చింది Here we can clearly see, there is a gap between SL and TL in three aspects. 1.No relative marker in TL 2.SL sub-ordinate +Tense into Non-finite form 3.Word order change jo AndhI kal AyI-thI Null ninna tufAnu vaccindi
SCONLI-3, India22 RULES 1.Change of word order according to TL 2. Deleting the relative makers (jo & vo) 3. Converting the finite into non-finite
SCONLI-3, India23 जो आन्दी कल आयी थी वो बहुत नुकसान करगयी Null నిన్న వచ్చిన తుఫాను Null చాలా నష్టము చేసింది
SCONLI-3, India24 jo AndhI kal AyI_thI vo bahut nuksAn kargayI Null ninna vaccina tufAnu Null cAlA nasTam cesindi Change of word order according to TL
SCONLI-3, India25 jo kal AyI_thI AndhI vo bahut nuksAn kargayI Null ninna vaccina tufAnu Null cAlA nasTam cesindi
SCONLI-3, India26 जो कल आयी थी आंधी वो बहुत नुकसान करगयी Null నిన్న వచ్చిన తుఫాను Null చాలా నష్టము చేసింది Deleting the relative makers (jo & vo)
SCONLI-3, India30 कल आय् ( Past.v.adj ) आंधी बहुत नुकसान करगयी నిన్న వచ్చిన తుఫాను చాలా నష్టము చేసింది
SCONLI-3, India31 REQUIRED RESOURCES LARGE AMNOUNT OF CORPUS, REPRESENTS ALL DOMAINS BROAD COVERAGE MORPH ANALYZER, GENERATOR >BROAD COVERAGE E-BILINGUAL LEXICONS LARGE AMOUNT OF POS & PARSED TREE BANK CORPUS LARGE AMOUNT OF PARALLEL CORPORA Apart from, there is an high necessity of well trained LINGUIST for modeling the language (s), and a Computer Scientist for implementing the model (s).