Presentation on theme: "Chapter 2. Came to Canada at 3 different times and for 3 different reasons: – 1 st – Mohawk and Oneida 1670 b/c of missionary efforts of the Jesuits (French."— Presentation transcript:
Came to Canada at 3 different times and for 3 different reasons: – 1 st – Mohawk and Oneida 1670 b/c of missionary efforts of the Jesuits (French Catholic priests) Settled near Montreal at Caughnawaga and Oka (Kanesatake) – 2 nd – largest wave arrived in Canada after the American Revolutionary War (1783). Mohawk, Seneca, Cayuga and Onondaga had fought with the British against the Americans and were forced to flee when the newly formed United States was created.
IROQUOIS Refers to one specific group of Iroquoian speakers Members of the League of Five Nations or Haudenonsaunee (People of the Long House). Included: – Stadaconans – Hochelagans – People of the Roebuck – And a number of other peoples around the St. Lawrence river. IROQUOIAN Refers to the people who spoke a similar language or related language.
Iroquois Confederacy – AKA – League of Five Nations Included: – Mohawk – Oneida – Onondaga – Cayuga – Seneca Each nation maintained its own language, villages and councils. The agreement between these nations was formed (according to oral tradition) at the time of the eclipse of the Sun, seen in Iroquoia in 1451.
Dekanawidah and Hiawatha meet with Atotarho, the powerful war chief. It is only when they come the snakes, representing evil, from Atotarho’s hair and encourage everyone to throw down their weapons of war that they succeed in creating the Great Peace
Most known about b/c the French spent a lot of time with them. Had an alliance or confederacy with 4 nations similar to the Iroquois. Lived in Longhouses made of cedar, elm or ash bark Ranged from25 metres to 45 metres long and 10 metres wide
MATRILOCAL Required a man to move into the household of his wife. Longhouses were occupied mostly by a group of related adult women, their spouses, and their children MATRILINEAL All children belonged to their mother’s clan. Did not inheret from father, instead they relied on their mother and her brothers for support.
Less time spent with this group by the French Destroyed by a combination of epidemic disease and warfare. Iroquois attacked the Huron, Neutral and Petun, many fled west and join Algonkian peoples. A few thouse retreated with the Jesuits and became known as the Huron of Lorette, their decedents survive today, but their language is extinct and they have been acculturated.
Two groups Algonkian Peoples of the Atlantic Peoples of the northeastern forests and sub-Arctic
Most easterly Aboriginal Peoples of Canada Refered to as: The People of the Dawn Maliseet Passamoqoddy Penobscot Abenaki
Consists of 2 language groups: – Cree – Ojibwa (Anishinabe) Migratory society – Did not allow for many or heavy possessions – Traded with other groups – Possessions were transported by canoe in summer and spring and by toboggan in winter
House needed to be easily moved. Wigwams were traditional Birch bark covered willow frames.
1. Who are the Iroquoian Peoples, the Algonkian Peoples of the eastern Woodlands, and the peoples of the forests and subarctic? 2. What types of social, cultural, or economic similarities do you see among these various Aboriginal groups? 3. The introduction to this chapter states, “Their societies were not static and they should not be seen as stereotypes.” What is meant by this statement?