IROQUOIS- What’S IN A Name? Iroquois is an easily recognized name, but like the names of many tribes, it was given them by their enemies. The Algonquin called them the Iroqu (Irinakhoiw) "rattlesnakes." After the French added the Gallic suffix "-ois" to this insult, the name became Iroquois. The Iroquois call themselves Haudenosaunee meaning "people of the long house."
Location! Location! Location! The original homeland of the Iroquois was in upstate New York between the Adirondack Mountains and Niagara Falls. Through conquest and migration, they gained control of most of the northeastern United States and eastern Canada.
Adapting to their Environment How did the Iroquois use their environment to meet their basic needs? Food IroquoisIroquois Clothing shelter COPY
Why did the nations unite? Iroquois included FIVE NATIONS. Only Oneida One Onondaga Slob Seneca Can Cayuga Munch Mohawk *later Tuscarora joins the league in 1715 These five nations were frequently at war with each other and rival NY tribe, the Algonquins. Dekanawida, a prophet, inspires Hiawatha to create an alliance.
Dekanawida’s Legend “PEACE AND UNITY” “The Iroquois must come together by taking hold of each other’s hands so firmly and forming a circle that is a tree should fall upon it, it could not shake, could not break it, do that our people and grandchildren shall remain in the circle of security, peace, and happiness!”
Vocabulary…. Tribe: a community of people who share a common language, custom, and rituals. There were many TRIBES in each culture area. EX. Oneida, Cayuga, Algonquin, Cherokees.
Iroquois Confederacy: The Five nations of the Iroquois formed an alliance to end fighting and become strong. Known as the League of the 5 Nations. Only Oneida One Onondaga Slob Seneca Can Cayuga Munch Mohawk
Grand Council (sachems) A council of 50 specially chosen tribal leaders who met to make decisions for the League of the 5 Nations. Ex) decided on war and trade by VOTING. Adapt: to adjust to the environment and surrounding resources. i.e. Iroquois used bark to create longhouses. Plains Indians used buffalo skin to make tepees.
The Five Nations In 1570 the members of the Iroquois formed a confederation or loose alliance. Each tribe governed itself. Matters that were important to all, such as war and trade were decided by a GREAT COUNCIL. A constitution, or Great Law of Peace, was drafted.
Iroquois League Men from each of the five tribes served on the council. The oldest women of each tribe chose the council Each member had one vote All had to agree before anything was done. How is the Iroquois league democratic?
The Iroquois Flag and the Hiawatha Wampum Belt The Hiawatha wampum belt is comprised of thirty eight rows. A heart as a great tree is located in the center. On both sides of the tree there are two squares, all are connected with the heart by white rows of wampum. The belt is the emblem of unity among the Five Nations.
Why is the formation of the Confederacy so important? The Iroquois ConstitutionThe Iroquois Constitution creates establishes a democratic government with rights and responsibilities of elected officials, a system for the creation of laws and settling of disputes between nations, and a process for declaring and conducting war. The Iroquois Constitution becomes one of the influential documents in the creation of the U.S. Constitution.