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AP World History: The Crusades

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1 AP World History: The Crusades
Period Three: 600 CE – 1450 CE This is a current map of Israel today. NY State Standards 2, 3 Common Core 1, 2, 7, WS 1

2 Let’s Explore Jerusalem!
Jerusalem was founded in 3000 BCE. Israel only became a country in Today, Israel is home to Jews, Christians, and Muslims. Conflict unfortunately still exists between Israel and the Palestinians, who believe that Israel belongs to them. Above you can see the Dome of the Rock and the Western Wall.

3 Ethiopian Christians in Jerusalem
The Jewish Quarter The Arab Quarter The Armenian Quarter Ethiopian Christians in Jerusalem

4 Should the Wall Separating West and East Jerusalem Be Torn Down?

5 I What were the Crusades and why did they begin?
A) The Crusades were a series of wars fought over control of the Holy Land (Jerusalem) in the Middle Ages ( ) between Christian knights and the Saracens (Muslim Turks). B) The Umayyad Muslims captured the Holy Land in the 7th century CE. Christians and Jews were allowed to worship freely at their holy sites. Umayyads built the Dome of the Rock (a mosque) on the Temple Mount (where the Jewish Temple once stood.) Muslims believe this is where Muhammad ascended to heaven. C) In 1070 the Seljuk Turks (also Muslim) conquered Jerusalem and threatened the Byzantine Empire. Unlike the Umayyads, the Seljuk Turks did not allow non-Muslims to visit their holy sites. D) In 1095 the Byzantine Emperor asked Pope Urban II to help him fight the Seljuk Turks in Jerusalem. Why would the Byzantine Emperor ask for help from the Pope? Didn’t they not like each other?


7 What were the Crusades Continued…
E) What was at stake for Christians? 1. Church of the Holy Sepulcher: Christians believe the church was built over the site where Jesus was crucified.

8 What were the Crusades Continued…
B) Bethlehem’s Church of the Nativity: Where Jesus is believed to have been born.

9 II Pope Urban II Called for a Crusade
A) 1095 Pope Urban II gave a speech, asking all Christians to fight for the Holy Land, promising forgiveness of sins, salvation in heaven, and wealth. "Christians, hasten to help your brothers in the East, for they are being attacked. Arm for the rescue of Jerusalem under your captain Christ. Wear his cross as your badge. If you are killed your sins will be pardoned.“ – Pope Urban II, 1095 Can you think of any other reasons why Christian knights wanted to go on a crusade?

10 III The First Crusade (1095 – 1099)
A) 30,000+ Christian knights went on the First Crusade. Not all made it to Jerusalem. B) On the way to Jerusalem, the crusaders massacred and looted Jewish communities. This was due to anti-Semitism, and the belief that Jews were responsible for killing Jesus. C) Godfrey of Bouillon led a successful take-over of Jerusalem. He began the Christian Kingdom of Jerusalem. Anti-Semitism is hatred towards Jews. The French word for cross is “croix”, which led to the word “crusades”. All crusading knights sewed crosses on their tunics.

11 A Christian Depiction of the Crusades
How does this painting depict the Christian Knights? How does it depict the Saracens (Muslim Turks)? Can you trust this painting as a true account of the Crusades?

12 Primary Source from an Unknown Christian Knight, 1099
"Exulting with joy we reached the city of Jerusalem on Tuesday, June 6, and we besieged it in a wonderful manner… One of our knights… climbed on to the wall of the city. When he reached the top, all the defenders of the city quickly fled… Our men followed and pursued them, killing and hacking, as far as the Temple of Solomon [the Wailing Wall], and there was such a slaughter that our men were up to their ankles in the enemy's blood Entering the city, our pilgrims pursued and killed the Saracens [Muslim Turks] up to the Temple of Solomon. There the Saracens assembled and resisted fiercely all day, so that the whole temple flowed with their blood… Then the crusaders scattered throughout the city, seizing gold and silver, horses and mules, and houses full of all sorts of goods. Afterwards our men went rejoicing and weeping for joy to adore the [Holy] Sepulcher of our Savior Jesus. . . On the eighth day after the capture of the city they elected Duke Godfrey prince of the city…The city was captured by the Christians on Friday, July 15."

13 Kingdom of Jerusalem

14 III What Happened in the Later Crusades?
A) By 1144 CE the Saracens had recaptured a lot of the Holy Land. This led to the 2nd Crusade. The crusading army was led by the Kings of France and Germany… who were defeated before they ever got to Jerusalem! B) 1174 Saladin became the leader of the Saracens. He conquered Jerusalem in 1187, which led to the 3rd Crusade. King Richard I (the Lionhearted) of England, King Philip of France, and the Holy Roman Emperor Barbarossa led the Christian army. Barbarossa drowned while bathing. King Philip went home. In 1192, Richard agreed to peace with Saladin; Christians could visit their holy sites and keep what was left of their kingdom, as long as they did not make further attacks.

15 What Happened in the Later Crusades Continued…
C) Saladin died in Some Christian knights saw this as an opportunity to take back Jerusalem. This led to the 4th Crusade. On the way to the Holy Land, the knights attacked a Christian city in exchange for ships from Venice. They then attacked Constantinople (also a Christian city!) when the Byzantine Emperor failed to give them money. *Constantinople never fully recovered, and eventually fell to the Turks in 1453. D) 1212 CE 30,000 children (mostly from France and Germany) joined the Children’s Crusade. It was led by Stephen, a 12 year old boy. Most were never heard from again. Many were sold into slavery. *This crusade was never officially blessed by the Pope.

16 Who Was Eleanor of Aquitaine?
At 15 years old Eleanor was married to Louis VII, the King of France. In 1147 she joined her husband on the 2nd Crusade. She traveled with 300 other ladies, all dressed in armor and carrying lances. They never fought, but they helped the wounded. After returning to France following their defeat, Eleanor successfully divorced her husband… though it may have had more to do with the fact that she bore him no sons.

17 Primary Source: Saladin on the Christians (approximately 1187 CE)
"If God blesses us by enabling us to drive His enemies out of Jerusalem, how fortunate and happy we would be! For Jerusalem has been controlled by the enemy for 91 years, during which time God has received nothing from us here in the way of adoration. At the same time, the zeal of the Muslim rulers to deliver it languished. Time passed, and so did many [in different] generations, while the Franks succeeded in rooting themselves strongly there. Now God has reserved the merit of its recovery for one house, the house of the sons of Ayyub [Saladin's family], in order to unite all hearts in appreciation of its members."

18 The Sack of Constantinople, 1204 CE
Nicetas Choniates: Alexii Ducae Imperium, ch. iii-iv, in Recueil des historiens des Croisades, hist. grec., 1, 397. Greek. How shall I begin to tell of the deeds wrought by these nefarious men! Alas, the images, which ought to have been adored, were trodden under foot! Alas, the relics of the holy martyrs were thrown into unclean places! Then was seen what one shudders to hear, namely, the divine body and blood of Christ was spilled upon the ground or thrown about. They snatched the precious reliquaries, thrust into their bosoms the ornaments which these contained, and used the broken remnants for pans and drinking cups,-precursors of Anti-Christ, authors and heralds of his nefarious deeds which we momentarily expect. Manifestly, indeed, by that race then, just as formerly, Christ was robbed and insulted and His garments were divided by lot; only one thing was lacking, that His side, pierced by a spear, should pour rivers of divine blood on the ground. Nor can the violation of the Great Church [Hagia Sophia] be listened to with equanimity. For the sacred altar, formed of all kinds of precious materials and admired by the whole world, was broken into bits and distributed among the soldiers, as was all the other sacred wealth of so, great and infinite splendor... No one was without a share in the grief. In the alleys, in the streets, in the temples, complaints, weeping, lamentations, grief, the groaning of men, the shrieks of women, wounds, rape, captivity, t separation of those most closely united. Nobles wandered about ignominiously, those of venerable age in tears, the rich in poverty... Oh, immortal God, how great the afflictions of the men, how great the distress!

19 Acre, A Crusader Castle, Near Haifa, Israel

20 The Crusaders in Mainz 1096, May 27
In the year 1096, bands of zealous crusaders set out for the Holy Land. Many of the crusaders were pious; but there can be no question that many also were runaway serfs, ambitious business men, adventurers, and criminals. As they passed through Germany on their way to Jerusalem this motley crew killed thousands of "infidel" Jews in the larger cities such as Speyer, Worms, Mainz and Cologne. In May, 1096 a band of crusaders led by Emico, a German noble, forced its way into the city of Mainz. The slaughter of the Jews there are below, taken from a Hebrew historical account by Solomon bar Samson - of whom we know very little - who wrote about [] It was on the third of Siwan.... at noon [Tuesday, May of 1096], that Emico the wicked… led a band of plundering German and French crusaders. Then the enemies of the Lord said to each other: “look! They have opened up the gate for us. Now let us avenge the blood of 'the hanged one' [Jesus].”… Then young and old donned their armor and girded on their weapons... Yet because of the many troubles and the fasts which they had observed they had no strength to stand up against the enemy. [They had fasted to avert the impending evils... The bishop's men, who had promised to help them, were the very first to flee… even the bishop himself fled from his church for it was thought to kill him also because he had spoken good things of the Jews.... [Archbishop Ruthard had been paid to remain and defend the Jews. He was later accused of having received some of the plunder taken from them.]… - Solomon Bar Samson

21 IV What were the consequences of the Crusades?
A) Short Term Consequences: 1. By 1302 the Crusades were officially over. There had been 9 official (Pope approved) crusades, and many more minor ones. 2. The Holy Land remained in the hands of the Saracens (Muslim Turks) million people died. B) Long Term Consequences: 1. Many nobles who joined the Crusades never returned. This allowed kings to increase their power, breaking down the feudal system. 2. Europeans were exposed to Muslim technology, education, and luxury goods. This led to a revival of trade. 3. The Holy Land was controlled by the Muslim Turks until the end of WWI in 1922!

22 Focus Questions What were the causes of the Crusades?
Why do you think anti-Semitism increased during the Crusades? (Use evidence from “The Crusaders in Mainz”) What was the cause of the sack of Constantinople? What were the consequences? Did it make any sense? What were the consequences of the Crusades? Were the Crusades a success or failure? Explain. Do you think the Christian source depicting the First Crusade, or the source from Saladin is more historically accurate? Why? Which side would you have fought for and why?

23 Key Vocabulary Children’s Crusade King Richard I
Church of the Holy Sepulcher Kingdom of Jerusalem Pope Urban II Crusades Saladin Dome of the Rock Saracens Eleanor of Aquitaine Second Crusade First Crusade Temple Mount Fourth Crusade Third Crusade Godfrey Umayyads

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