5 Big Picture – “Migration 600-1450” 7th Century Bedouin Tribe(s) [Islam] Conquered and spread religion until 13th Century Mongols13th Century Mongols conquests of Russia, Central Asian kingdoms Islamic Empire, Jin and Southern Song Dynasties of ChinaUntil Mongols the Seljuk Turks migrated to Persia, Anatolia, and India converted to IslamAfter the Mongols – The Political & Cultural map of Eurasia changed….
6 Mongol Origins & Conquest Nomadic herders of goats and sheep who lived off the products of their animals.Boys and girls learned to ride as soon as they could walk.The basic unit of social organization, the tribe, was divided into kin-related clans. Great confederations were organized for defensive and offensive operations.Men held dominant leadership positions; women held considerable influence within the family.Leaders were elected by free men. They gained their positions through displays of courage and diplomatic skills and maintained power as long as they were successful.ConquestGathering intelligence had high priorityForeign experts and advisors, in particular Persian and ChineseEvery man carried their own supplies and had 2 horses. Ate horse blood and milkThousands of vassals took loyalty oaths: became commanders, ran army, ran governmentTook walled cities by using Chinese siege technologyBrought Chinese engineers with themConquered most of Asia, Middle East, Russia
8 Temujin: Chinggis Khan Born 1167, son of tribal chiefFather poisoned…fled as youthReturned as adult, avenged father, eventually became chief….By age forty had unified all Mongol tribesBattles, alliances, ability to surviveElected as the Great Khan (Khagan)Chinggis Khanʹs first campaigns were directed against the Tangut kingdom of Xi Xia and the Qin kingdom of northern China in 1215Capital constructed by Chinggis Khan for his empire called Karakorum
9 “Man’s highest joy is victory: to conqueror one’s enemies, to pursue them, to deprive them of their possessions, to make their beloved weep, and to embrace their wives and daughters.”From tent to palaceChinggis Khan
10 Kublai Khan Grandson of Genghis Khan Son of Great Khan Mongke who died fighting the Song Dynasty 1259Kublai declared himself “Great Khan” (khagan) in 1265 the other Mongol khans refused to accept himKublai founded the Yuan Empire with its capital at Beijing in 1271In 1279 he conquered the Southern SongThough he was strong enough to control most of China, it was not enough to unite the other KhanatesKublai Khan
12 Mongol Army Tactics=Success All males served in army all as cavalryOrganized army in Tumens: units made up of 10,000 cavalrymen divided into smaller units.Units within each of 1000, 100, and 10No one in the army was paid, though all shared to varying degrees in the booty.All contributed to a fund to take care of those too old, hurt, or sick.Elaborate signals: every part can move in concert in battle. Flags, hand signalsHad to supply their own bows and other military equipmentTactics: retreat, turn, flank, destroyArmaments: horsemanship, compound bowReputation created paralyzing fearBy 1241, they reached Poland and Hungary
14 (P) Political, State-building, expansion, and Conflict Political structures- Autocratic EmpireMongol Nomads: Families-->Clans-->Tribes-->Tribes gathered during annual migrationChiefs elected. Based on nobility, military ability, wisdom, leadership skillsForms of Government-brought stable government based on precedents in Islamic and Chinese administration and religious toleration to much of AsiaYassa (Yasa) "order" or "decree". It was a secret written code of law written on scrolls and bound into volumes that could only be seen by the Khan or his closest advisors, but the rules were widely known and followed.No copies survive today!!!!!
15 (P) PoliticalRegional, trans-regional, and global structures & organizationsDivisions, assigned before Genghis Khan’s Death; under Ogedei Khan (Khagan)Four Khanates: (Grandsons of Genghis)Golden Horde- ( Batu Khanate) – RussiaIl-Khanate – (Hulegu Khanate) -PersiaChagatai Khanate – MongoliaGreat Khanate (Kublai) – China = Yuan Dynasty* Outer Mongolia, Border States, to which the others owed allegiance.
17 (E) Economic Systems Agricultural & pastoral production Nomads strove for economic self-sufficiency,However, relied on trade with settled people for certain goods, including iron, wood, cotton, grain, and silkWhen normal trade relations were interrupted, nomads tended to make war on settled agriculturalistsTrade & Commerce- The Mongol conquests opened overland trade routes and brought about an unprecedented commercial integration of EurasiaMaximizing revenues was the central goal of Mongol leaders, and tax farming was the method devised toward that end.The government sold contracts for tax collecting to small corporations, who bid for the privilege. The highest bidder was responsible for raising revenue.Labor Systems- Usually local Labor systems were retained or improved upon
18 (R) Religion & Belief Systems Religion(s): religious pluralismShamanism traditional beliefs and practices concerned with communication with the spirit world.Nature deities, but Mongol Khans were thought to represent the Sky God, who transcended all cultures and religionsSacred color: blueThe seasonal movements of the Mongol tribes brought them into contact with Judaism, Christianity, Buddhism, and IslamAll religions were tolerated in GK’s empire.Khans were thus conceived of as universal rulers who both transcended and used the various religions of their subjectsNestorians- Asian Christian sect; cut off from Europe by Muslim invasionsKhocho, Nestorian Temple, 683–770 CE.
19 (R) Religion & Belief Systems, Development & Interaction of Cultures PhilosophiesThe Mongols helped retain their possessions through their tolerance of many religions and their attempts to gain the support of all religious leaders.Science & TechnologyThe growth of long-distance trade under the Mongols led to significant transfer of military and scientific knowledge between Europe, the Middle East, China, Iran, and JapanThey funded projects in engineering, astronomy, and mathematics, hiring Middle Eastern Muslims to oversee projects.For example: the construction of an observatory and institute for astronomical studies in China
20 (R) Religion & Belief Systems, Development & Interaction of Cultures They encouraged the integration of Chinese and Middle Eastern mathematics and encouraged publication of books with moveable typeThe sharing of medical knowledge between the Muslim Middle East and China is also significant, especially the sharing of medical textsThere were many connections to warfare, such as metal casting for cannon and explosives. Shipping and navigation were also important.Transmission of knowledge and skills allowed Mongols to adapt a broad range of advances to their needs.Examples include:Metallurgy, in the form of ironworking and cast bronze for cannonMongol bow, which could shoot farther than other bows of the same periodCatapultPharmacologyEngineeringApplications of advanced mathematics.
21 (C) Culture (Development and transformation of Social Structures) Gender roles and relationsWomen from prestigious families often played an important role in negotiating these alliancesCultures treatment of women continuedRacial and ethnic constructions: (Ethnic Ranking)Mongols: Top military, civilian postsPersians, Turks, Non-Chinese nomad stock: High civil postsN. Chinese, border people, Manchurians: Next highest postsS. Chinese: Lowest civil postsAll records and proceedings in Uighur Turkic, then translated word by word into ChineseLanguage: Altaic (Rel. To Turkic, Manchurian)Writing systems: Started their own to chronicle Genghis Khan’s life, “The Secret History of the Mongols”
22 (I) Interactions (Interaction between humans and the environment) Demography: Population increased until the Black PlagueDisease:Consequences of the Mongol trade routes in the pandemic of the Black PlagueThe plague that had lingered in Yunnan (now southwest China) was transferred to central and north China, to Central Asia, to the Crimean city of Caffa, and from there to the Mediterranean worldMigration: (First Slide)
23 Interactions: EuropeSouthern European cities enriched themselves by participating in trade with the Mongol territories.By means of trade, as well as communications through Constantinople, Europe learned of Asian advances in gunpowder and guns, astronomy, mathematics, pharmacology, history, and geography.The threatened Mongol invasion of Europe provoked a period of religious questioning and created new avenues of transmission, including the Black Death.During this conflict European leaders attempted to make an alliance with the Il-khansThey wanted to drive the Muslims out of Syria, Lebanon, and PalestineThe Il-khans sought European help in driving the Golden Horde out of the CaucasusThese plans for an alliance never came to fruition because the Il-khan ruler Ghazan became a Muslim in 1295.
24 Interactions: EuropeThe Mongol armies that attacked Europe were actually an international force including Mongols, Turks, Chinese, Iranians, and Europeans and led by Mongol generalsThe well-led “Mongol” armies drove to the outskirts of Vienna, striking fear into the hearts of the Europeans; but rather than press on, the Mongols withdrew in December 1241 so that the Mongol princes could return to Mongolia to elect a successor to the recently deceased Great Khan Ogodei.
25 Interactions: EuropeAfter the Mongol withdrawal, Europeans initiated a variety of diplomatic and trade overtures toward the MongolsContact between Europeans and Mongols increased through the thirteenth century and brought knowledge of geography, natural resources, commerce, science, technology and mathematics from various parts of the Mongol realms to EuropeAt the same time, the Mongol invasions and the bubonic plague caused Europeans to question their accepted customs and religious beliefs
26 Interactions: China Chinese Rule of China: Yuan Dynasty Originally, plundered and robbedYuan Dynasty: Shortest lived major Chinese dynasty ( )Learned the art of taxationMongols ruling elite: Highly centralizedEmperor-->Secretariat--> Roving SecretariatRuling minority segregatedMajority ranked according to ethnicityGenghis Khan wanted the riches of ChinaBuilt the Grand Canal to BeijingPalace of the Khan: designed by Arab architects.Summer palace: Shangtu (Xanadu)Developed hereditary successionBy the death of Kublai Khan’s son, series of weak rulersThe Khanates lose cohesion due to religious and cultural differencesYuan Dynasty becomes more isolated
27 Interactions: China: Decline and succession Chinese never really accepted as legitimateSuccession wars between heirs and generalsHigh Taxes, Corrupt officialsPaper money controversyYellow River changed course and flooded Grand Canal among other natural disastersDecentralization & Rise of WarlordsZhu Yuanzhang, a Buddhist monk and member of the secret sect within the Red Lotus called the White Lotus, led the peasant rebellion, He destroyed the palaces of the Mongolians in Beijing and became the first emperor Hongwu (great martial) and named his dynasty Ming or brilliantLast Khan fled to Mongolia in 1368 after the Red Turbans Buddhist led revolts
28 Interactions: RussiaDefeated the Kievan Rus, the Golden Horde made their capital at Kiev, which was also the end of the overland caravan route from Central Asia.The main goal of the Golden Horde (Batu) was to extract as much tax revenue as possible (Feed the Horse)Impact of the Mongol conquests of RussiaRussian population to shifted from Kiev to Moscow and it emerged as the new center of the Russia (Later defeated the Golden Horde)Serfdom was institutionalized as tribute had to be paid (Problems later)Russian noble families of the 17th century, over 15% of the Russian noble families had TatarHistorians believe the Mongol rule of Russia delayed the westernizing of Russia for 200 years until Peter the Great early1700s!
29 Interactions: Islam Mongols and Islam, 1260–1500: Il-khan Mongol Empire controlled parts of Armenia and all of Azerbaijan, Mesopotamia, and IranThe Abbasid dynasty was ended and the Seljuk Turks who had ruled through its outer reaches were devastatedMongols had murdered the last Abbasid caliphMade possible the rise of the Mamluks (ex-slave armies of the Abbasids) in Egypt and the Ottoman Turks in Asia MinorMamluks gained dominance after they slowed the advance of the MongoliansRussia was under the domination of the Golden Horde, led by Genghis Khan’s grandson Batu, who had converted to Islam and announced his intention to avenge the last caliph. This led to the first conflict between Mongol domains.Impact of the Mongol conquests of Russia & the Islamic heartland similarIn both cases the traditional political structure was removed and the path was smoothed for new political organization to take placeIslamic Learning, Technology, Science, Math, and Astrology moved throughout the Mongol Empire and vise versa from ChinaRashid al-Dinproduced a history of the world was a Jew converted to Islam who served as adviser to the Il-khan ruler
30 Interactions: South East Asia Dai Viet (North Vietnam): Vietnamese captured Mongol envoys. Mongol forces invaded in 1257 massacred inhabitants of capital Thang Long (Hanoi), After series of invasions in , Dai Viet Dynasty accepted Mongol superiority because of the heavy lossesChampa (South Vietnam) Ignored the submission, Mongol forces lost in the country and their general was killed, The king of Champa started sending tributes two years later to avoid Mongol invasions.Khmer empire (Cambodia) 1278, a Mongol envoy was executed by the Khmer king. 100 Mongol cavalries sent were ambushed and destroyed However, the Khmer Empire asked a pardon and sent tribute in 1285Burma & Thai Kingdoms: Thai states accepted Mongol supremacy.According to Marco Polo, those subjects sent tribute on to the Mongol court, including elephants, rhinoceroses, jewels and a tooth of Buddha.
31 Interactions: IndiaInvasions into the Indian subcontinent from 1221 to 1327The Mongols made Kashmir their vassal state, but campaigns against the Delhi Sultanate proved fruitlessFinal Mongol invasion occurred when Timur-i Lang sacked and plundered Delhi, the capital of the Delhi Sultanate, but left India soon after.Later Babur would successfully conquer and set up the Mughal Empire in 1526He was a direct descendant of Timur through his father, and a descendant also of Genghis Khan through his mother
32 Interactions: Korea (Goryeo) 6 major invasions of Korea from 1231 to 1270Cost to millions of civilian and soldiers’ livesKorea become a vassal of the Mongol Yuan Dynasty for 80 yearsThe Mongol Empire and the Kingdom of Goryeo tied the relationship with marriages as Mongol princes married Korean princesses and vice versaGoryeo dynasty survived underMongolian influence until in the1350s when Yuan Dynasty became faltering.
33 Interactions: Korea Cont…. The Mongols shared information and facilitated the spread of technologies and knowledge to KoreaThey brought the philosophical ideas of Yuan China to Korea as well as knowledge of astronomical observation, mathematics, and the calendarThe Mongols’ role as intellectual facilitators also led to the rise of the educated class in Korea. Different literary demands led away from block printing to movable type, bringing about a very high rate of literacy in Yi KoreaCash crops were common, particularly cotton, which led to watermills and a textile export industryKorean innovations in military technology made possible a formidable navy with armored ships and mounted cannon
34 Interactions: JapanTwo Mongol invasions of Japan 1274 & 1281Immediate military effects, Japanese leaders considered the threat of Mongol invasion to be permanent.Japanese unity against the invader, both during the invasions and after….Consolidation of the social position of the Japanese warrior elite was also important.National trade and communication networks were a major consequence of the Mongol threatThis started the slow decline in the military reputation Yuan dynasty
35 Continuities over Time Large, multi-ethnic empire facilitated diffusionSubject states: Persian, Arab, Russian, TurkicGoods, art, technology and ideas spread up and down trades routesChinese communities found as far west as MoscowPrinting, gunpowder, medicine diffuse westMajor Comparisons:Mongol migration v. VikingsMongol migration v. Islam ExpansionMongol migration v. Bantu migrationMongol Invasions v. Crusades
36 Essay Question #3.Define the territorial extent of the Mongol empire at its largest. How did this affect inter-cultural exchange?
37 Answer Essay Question #3: Define the territorial extent of the Mongol empire at its largest. How did this affect inter-cultural exchange?Mongol empire extended from Russia and eastern Europe in West to Mesopotamia as far as Egypt in the South across the Caspian Sea region and the Asiatic steppes to include all of China.Mongol empire linked great global civilizations of Eastern Hemisphere, western and eastern Europe, Islam, ChinaThis permitted free exchange of goods and ideas between global cultures along traditional routes of trade.Page Ref: