7 th Century Bedouin Tribe(s) [Islam] Conquered and spread religion until 13 th Century Mongols 13 th Century Mongols conquests of Russia, Central Asian kingdoms Islamic Empire, Jin and Southern Song Dynasties of China Until Mongols the Seljuk Turks migrated to Persia, Anatolia, and India converted to Islam After the Mongols – The Political & Cultural map of Eurasia changed….
Mongol Origins Nomadic herders of goats and sheep who lived off the products of their animals. Boys and girls learned to ride as soon as they could walk. The basic unit of social organization, the tribe, was divided into kin- related clans. Great confederations were organized for defensive and offensive operations. Men held dominant leadership positions; women held considerable influence within the family. Leaders were elected by free men. They gained their positions through displays of courage and diplomatic skills and maintained power as long as they were successful. Conquest Gathering intelligence had high priority Foreign experts and advisors, in particular Persian and Chinese Every man carried their own supplies and had 2 horses. Ate horse blood and milk Thousands of vassals took loyalty oaths: became commanders, ran army, ran government Took walled cities by using Chinese siege technology Brought Chinese engineers with them Conquered most of Asia, Middle East, Russia
Born 1167, son of tribal chief Father poisoned…fled as youth Returned as adult, avenged father, eventually became chief…. By age forty had unified all Mongol tribes Battles, alliances, ability to survive Elected as the Great Khan (Khagan) Chinggis Khan ʹ s first campaigns were directed against the Tangut kingdom of Xi Xia and the Qin kingdom of northern China in 1215 Capital constructed by Chinggis Khan for his empire called Karakorum
“Man’s highest joy is victory: to conqueror one’s enemies, to pursue them, to deprive them of their possessions, to make their beloved weep, and to embrace their wives and daughters.” From tent to palace
Grandson of Genghis Khan Son of Great Khan Mongke who died fighting the Song Dynasty 1259 Kublai declared himself “Great Khan” (khagan) in 1265 the other Mongol khans refused to accept him Kublai founded the Yuan Empire with its capital at Beijing in 1271 In 1279 he conquered the Southern Song Though he was strong enough to control most of China, it was not enough to unite the other Khanates
All males 15-70 served in army all as cavalry Organized army in Tumens: units made up of 10,000 cavalrymen divided into smaller units. Units within each of 1000, 100, and 10 No one in the army was paid, though all shared to varying degrees in the booty. All contributed to a fund to take care of those too old, hurt, or sick. Elaborate signals: every part can move in concert in battle. Flags, hand signals Had to supply their own bows and other military equipment Tactics: retreat, turn, flank, destroy Armaments: horsemanship, compound bow Reputation created paralyzing fear By 1241, they reached Poland and Hungary
Political structures- Autocratic Empire Mongol Nomads: Families-->Clans-->Tribes--> Tribes gathered during annual migration Chiefs elected. Based on nobility, military ability, wisdom, leadership skills Forms of Government- brought stable government based on precedents in Islamic and Chinese administration and religious toleration to much of Asia Yassa (Yasa) "order" or "decree". It was a secret written code of law written on scrolls and bound into volumes that could only be seen by the Khan or his closest advisors, but the rules were widely known and followed. No copies survive today!!!!!
Regional, trans-regional, and global structures & organizations Divisions, assigned before Genghis Khan’s Death; under Ogedei Khan (Khagan) Four Khanates: (Grandsons of Genghis) 1.Golden Horde- ( Batu Khanate) – Russia 2.Il-Khanate – ( Hulegu Khanate) - Persia 3.Chagatai Khanate – Mongolia 4.Great Khanate (Kublai) – China = Yuan Dynasty * Outer Mongolia, Border States, to which the others owed allegiance.
Agricultural & pastoral production Nomads strove for economic self-sufficiency, However, relied on trade with settled people for certain goods, including iron, wood, cotton, grain, and silk When normal trade relations were interrupted, nomads tended to make war on settled agriculturalists Trade & Commerce- The Mongol conquests opened overland trade routes and brought about an unprecedented commercial integration of Eurasia Maximizing revenues was the central goal of Mongol leaders, and tax farming was the method devised toward that end. The government sold contracts for tax collecting to small corporations, who bid for the privilege. The highest bidder was responsible for raising revenue. Labor Systems- Usually local Labor systems were retained or improved upon
Religion(s): religious pluralism Shamanism traditional beliefs and practices concerned with communication with the spirit world. Nature deities, but Mongol Khans were thought to represent the Sky God, who transcended all cultures and religions Sacred color: blue The seasonal movements of the Mongol tribes brought them into contact with Judaism, Christianity, Buddhism, and Islam All religions were tolerated in GK’s empire. All religions were tolerated in GK’s empire. Khans were thus conceived of as universal rulers who both transcended and used the various religions of their subjects Nestorians- Asian Christian sect; cut off from Europe by Muslim invasions Khocho, Nestorian Temple, 683–770 CE.
Philosophies The Mongols helped retain their possessions through their tolerance of many religions and their attempts to gain the support of all religious leaders. Science & Technology The growth of long-distance trade under the Mongols led to significant transfer of military and scientific knowledge between Europe, the Middle East, China, Iran, and Japan They funded projects in engineering, astronomy, and mathematics, hiring Middle Eastern Muslims to oversee projects. For example: the construction of an observatory and institute for astronomical studies in China
They encouraged the integration of Chinese and Middle Eastern mathematics and encouraged publication of books with moveable type The sharing of medical knowledge between the Muslim Middle East and China is also significant, especially the sharing of medical texts There were many connections to warfare, such as metal casting for cannon and explosives. Shipping and navigation were also important. Transmission of knowledge and skills allowed Mongols to adapt a broad range of advances to their needs. Examples include: Metallurgy, in the form of ironworking and cast bronze for cannon Mongol bow, which could shoot farther than other bows of the same period Catapult Pharmacology Engineering Applications of advanced mathematics.
Gender roles and relations Women from prestigious families often played an important role in negotiating these alliances Cultures treatment of women continued Racial and ethnic constructions: (Ethnic Ranking) Mongols: Top military, civilian posts Persians, Turks, Non-Chinese nomad stock: High civil posts N. Chinese, border people, Manchurians: Next highest posts S. Chinese: Lowest civil posts All records and proceedings in Uighur Turkic, then translated word by word into Chinese Language: Altaic (Rel. To Turkic, Manchurian) Writing systems: Started their own to chronicle Genghis Khan’s life, “The Secret History of the Mongols”
Demography: Population increased until the Black Plague Disease: Consequences of the Mongol trade routes in the pandemic of the Black Plague The plague that had lingered in Yunnan (now southwest China) was transferred to central and north China, to Central Asia, to the Crimean city of Caffa, and from there to the Mediterranean world Migration: (First Slide)
Southern European cities enriched themselves by participating in trade with the Mongol territories. By means of trade, as well as communications through Constantinople, Europe learned of Asian advances in gunpowder and guns, astronomy, mathematics, pharmacology, history, and geography. The threatened Mongol invasion of Europe provoked a period of religious questioning and created new avenues of transmission, including the Black Death. During this conflict European leaders attempted to make an alliance with the Il-khans They wanted to drive the Muslims out of Syria, Lebanon, and Palestine The Il-khans sought European help in driving the Golden Horde out of the Caucasus These plans for an alliance never came to fruition because the Il-khan ruler Ghazan became a Muslim in 1295.
The Mongol armies that attacked Europe were actually an international force including Mongols, Turks, Chinese, Iranians, and Europeans and led by Mongol generals The well-led “Mongol” armies drove to the outskirts of Vienna, striking fear into the hearts of the Europeans; but rather than press on, the Mongols withdrew in December 1241 so that the Mongol princes could return to Mongolia to elect a successor to the recently deceased Great Khan Ogodei.
After the Mongol withdrawal, Europeans initiated a variety of diplomatic and trade overtures toward the Mongols Contact between Europeans and Mongols increased through the thirteenth century and brought knowledge of geography, natural resources, commerce, science, technology and mathematics from various parts of the Mongol realms to Europe At the same time, the Mongol invasions and the bubonic plague caused Europeans to question their accepted customs and religious beliefs
Chinese Rule of China: Yuan Dynasty Originally, plundered and robbed Yuan Dynasty: Shortest lived major Chinese dynasty (1264-1368) Learned the art of taxation Mongols ruling elite: Highly centralized Emperor-->Secretariat--> Roving Secretariat Ruling minority segregated Majority ranked according to ethnicity Genghis Khan wanted the riches of China Built the Grand Canal to Beijing Palace of the Khan: designed by Arab architects. Summer palace: Shangtu (Xanadu) Developed hereditary succession By the death of Kublai Khan’s son, series of weak rulers The Khanates lose cohesion due to religious and cultural differences Yuan Dynasty becomes more isolated
o Chinese never really accepted as legitimate o Succession wars between heirs and generals oHigh Taxes, Corrupt officials oPaper money controversy oYellow River changed course and flooded Grand Canal among other natural disasters oDecentralization & Rise of Warlords oZhu Yuanzhang, a Buddhist monk and member of the secret sect within the Red Lotus called the White Lotus, led the peasant rebellion, He destroyed the palaces of the Mongolians in Beijing and became the first emperor Hongwu (great martial) and named his dynasty Ming or brilliant oLast Khan fled to Mongolia in 1368 after the Red Turbans Buddhist led revolts
Defeated the Kievan Rus, the Golden Horde made their capital at Kiev, which was also the end of the overland caravan route from Central Asia. The main goal of the Golden Horde (Batu) was to extract as much tax revenue as possible (Feed the Horse) Impact of the Mongol conquests of Russia Russian population to shifted from Kiev to Moscow and it emerged as the new center of the Russia (Later defeated the Golden Horde) Serfdom was institutionalized as tribute had to be paid (Problems later) Russian noble families of the 17th century, over 15% of the Russian noble families had Tatar Historians believe the Mongol rule of Russia delayed the westernizing of Russia for 200 years until Peter the Great early1700s!
Mongols and Islam, 1260–1500: Il-khan Mongol Empire controlled parts of Armenia and all of Azerbaijan, Mesopotamia, and Iran The Abbasid dynasty was ended and the Seljuk Turks who had ruled through its outer reaches were devastated Mongols had murdered the last Abbasid caliph Made possible the rise of the Mamluks (ex-slave armies of the Abbasids) in Egypt and the Ottoman Turks in Asia Minor Mamluks gained dominance after they slowed the advance of the Mongolians Russia was under the domination of the Golden Horde, led by Genghis Khan’s grandson Batu, who had converted to Islam and announced his intention to avenge the last caliph. This led to the first conflict between Mongol domains. Impact of the Mongol conquests of Russia & the Islamic heartland similar In both cases the traditional political structure was removed and the path was smoothed for new political organization to take place Islamic Learning, Technology, Science, Math, and Astrology moved throughout the Mongol Empire and vise versa from China Rashid al-Din produced a history of the world was a Jew converted to Islam who served as adviser to the Il- khan ruler
Dai Viet (North Vietnam): Vietnamese captured Mongol envoys. Mongol forces invaded in 1257 massacred inhabitants of capital Thang Long (Hanoi), After series of invasions in 1278-1288, Dai Viet Dynasty accepted Mongol superiority because of the heavy losses Champa (South Vietnam) Ignored the submission, Mongol forces lost in the country and their general was killed, The king of Champa started sending tributes two years later to avoid Mongol invasions. Khmer empire (Cambodia) 1278, a Mongol envoy was executed by the Khmer king. 100 Mongol cavalries sent were ambushed and destroyed However, the Khmer Empire asked a pardon and sent tribute in 1285 Burma & Thai Kingdoms: Thai states accepted Mongol supremacy. According to Marco Polo, those subjects sent tribute on to the Mongol court, including elephants, rhinoceroses, jewels and a tooth of Buddha.
Invasions into the Indian subcontinent from 1221 to 1327 The Mongols made Kashmir their vassal state, but campaigns against the Delhi Sultanate proved fruitless Final Mongol invasion occurred when Timur-i Lang sacked and plundered Delhi, the capital of the Delhi Sultanate, but left India soon after. Later Babur would successfully conquer and set up the Mughal Empire in 1526 He was a direct descendant of Timur through his father, and a descendant also of Genghis Khan through his mother
6 major invasions of Korea from 1231 to 1270 Cost to millions of civilian and soldiers’ lives Korea become a vassal of the Mongol Yuan Dynasty for 80 years The Mongol Empire and the Kingdom of Goryeo tied the relationship with marriages as Mongol princes married Korean princesses and vice versa Goryeo dynasty survived under Mongolian influence until in the 1350s when Yuan Dynasty became faltering.
The Mongols shared information and facilitated the spread of technologies and knowledge to Korea They brought the philosophical ideas of Yuan China to Korea as well as knowledge of astronomical observation, mathematics, and the calendar The Mongols’ role as intellectual facilitators also led to the rise of the educated class in Korea. Different literary demands led away from block printing to movable type, bringing about a very high rate of literacy in Yi Korea Cash crops were common, particularly cotton, which led to watermills and a textile export industry Korean innovations in military technology made possible a formidable navy with armored ships and mounted cannon
Two Mongol invasions of Japan 1274 & 1281 Immediate military effects, Japanese leaders considered the threat of Mongol invasion to be permanent. Japanese unity against the invader, both during the invasions and after…. Consolidation of the social position of the Japanese warrior elite was also important. National trade and communication networks were a major consequence of the Mongol threat This started the slow decline in the military reputation Yuan dynasty
Large, multi-ethnic empire facilitated diffusion Subject states: Persian, Arab, Russian, Turkic Goods, art, technology and ideas spread up and down trades routes Chinese communities found as far west as Moscow Printing, gunpowder, medicine diffuse west Major Comparisons: Mongol migration v. Vikings Mongol migration v. Islam Expansion Mongol migration v. Bantu migration Mongol Invasions v. Crusades
Define the territorial extent of the Mongol empire at its largest. How did this affect inter-cultural exchange?
Mongol empire extended from Russia and eastern Europe in West to Mesopotamia as far as Egypt in the South across the Caspian Sea region and the Asiatic steppes to include all of China. Mongol empire linked great global civilizations of Eastern Hemisphere, western and eastern Europe, Islam, China This permitted free exchange of goods and ideas between global cultures along traditional routes of trade. Page Ref: 305-310