Presentation on theme: "“The Legend of the Khans”"— Presentation transcript:
1 “The Legend of the Khans” The Mongol Empire“The Legend of the Khans”Mongolia is located in Central Asia, north of ChinaEarly Mongolia was controlled by many nomadic tribes led by warlordsMongolian culture revolved around hunting, fishing, fighting and the horse.
3 Genghis KhanTemujin was born in one of the more combative areas of MongoliaMany of his family members died in battle or were killed by in-fighting within the tribe.
4 Genghis Khan Temujin’s wife was kidnapped by a rival tribe He was a skilled leader whoHe recruited the best soldiers and military minds to be in his inner circleTemujin proclaimed he was the rightful leader of the known worldHe created a new government and destroyed all tribes that did not demonstrate loyalty to him.In 1206 he became Genghis Khan, which translates into Universal Ruler
5 New Laws New Mongolian Order Kidnapping of women is forbidden All children are legitimateWomen could no longer be sold into marriageThe stealing of animals is a capital offenseRegulation of hunting to the winter timeNew Mongolian OrderGenghis Khan created a supreme officer of the law to oversee trials and introduced record keeping, put the native language into written form, and created an official seal
6 Conquering ChinaGenghis thought it was his destiny to conquer the worldChina was a powerhouse in perilIn 1211, the Mongols crossed the Yellow River and seized Northern China
7 Mongol AttacksKhan used a divide and conquer method to obtain military victory in ChinaMany Chinese communities feared the Mongols, so Genghis showed them benevolence and adopted them into his new empireThose who opposed were ravaged with terror and bloodshedThe Mongols would start a battle with a rain of arrowsThe Mongol army would surround and enclose their enemy on horseback.Mongols wore silk shirts and light armor for quickness and to absorb arrow attacks
8 Military ConquestsGenghis captured Afghanistan and Persia to increase tradeGenghis captured Armenia and parts of Eastern Europe to open up access to the Caspian SeaThe Mongols also captured Korea, parts of Russia, and HungaryThe Mongolian Empire was the Largest Empire in historyGenghis Khan attempted to invade Japan, but the Mongols were shipwrecked as they tried to sail themselves and their horses to Japan
10 Next Generation Ogodei Khan took over for his father in 1231 He continued Mongol conquests and was at the gates of Vienna before his death in 1241
11 Kublai Khan Kublai Khan was seen as the next great Khan He stabilized Mongol government and territoryKublai Khan conquered China in 1259 and declared himself EmperorHe named the new dynasty “Yuan”-which means “beginning.”Visitors from all lands were welcome to Kublai Khan’s court.A Christian from Europe, Marco Polo came from Venice, Italy. Marco Polo’s writings helped to increase trade with Europe and China.China prospered only under Kublai Khan, but not under the later Khans, or emperors who followed him.Kublai launched a new assault on Japan - a Mongol, Chinese and Korean force with 4,400 ships and 140,000 men, catapults, horses, combustible missiles, bows and arrowsThey were defeated by a hurricane (kamikaze winds) off the south coast of Japan
12 Mongol SuccessThe Mongols found success due to their hands off policy of ruleAfter they conquered a community, they did not disturb that community’s way of lifeReligious and Social Tolerance was a key factor in keeping the empire togetherThe biggest change was the taxes went to the Mongols to fund their wars and to build a new infrastructure