Presentation on theme: "Mongol Eurasia & Its Aftermath 1200-1500. Nomadism in Central Asia Resources –Scarce water = Pressure for tribes to move out to find new sources Complex."— Presentation transcript:
Nomadism in Central Asia Resources –Scarce water = Pressure for tribes to move out to find new sources Complex Hierarchy –Headed by single leader (khan) –Powerful groups demanded and received tribute in the form of slaves and goods (some lived entirely on tribute). –The groups /families formed larger groups called federations –Women important in negotiating alliances Seasonal migrations and religious contacts –Brought into contact w/ Judaism, Christianity, Buddhism & Islam –Tolerant of other Religions –Khan thought to represent the sky god
Genghis Khan Temujin aka Genghis (Chengiz)) Khan –Responsible for bringing together all Mongol tribes into a single confederation Mastered the art of steppe diplomacy –Called for displays of personal courage in battle combined with intense loyalty to allies and the ability to entice other tribes into alliances. The four most significant legacies (aside from his conquests): –His tolerance of many religions –His creation of the Mongols' first script –His support for trade and crafts –His creation of a legal code specific to their pastoral-nomadic way of life
Mongol Conquests 1206-1258 conquered from Korea to Hungary and Baghdad Reputation for slaughtering all who would not surrender Ability to take advantage of rivalry among enemies Ability to conquer based on: –Horsemanship –Better bows –Following a volley of arrows w/ deadly cavalry –Adopting new military techniques and technology –Incorporating non-Mongol soldiers into their armies
Strong Equestrians and Archers Extreme Mobility –They carried their houses with them –Drank their own horse's blood & milk –Could travel up to 60 miles per day. –Message system allowed orders to be transmitted rapidly across Eurasia. Deadly Archers –Arrows could kill enemies at 200 meters (650+ ft) –Modified stirrups –‘Terror’ tactics (psychological warfare)
Impact of the Mongols Mongol conquests opened overland trade routes –Long distance trade led to cross diffusion of military and science between Europe, Middle East, and Asia. Never before seen commercial integration in Eurasia –Trade from Venice to Beijing by sea and overland routes The Great Pandemic (Bubonic Plague) would bring even greater population shifts
Shortly after Genghis Khan’s death in 1227, his empire split into four Khanates among sons & grandsons (P 329).