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Tropical Peatlands: Global Impacts, Regional Vulnerability and Local Adaptation Pep Canadell 1, Daniel Murdiyarso 2, Faizal Parish 3 1_GCP International.

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Presentation on theme: "Tropical Peatlands: Global Impacts, Regional Vulnerability and Local Adaptation Pep Canadell 1, Daniel Murdiyarso 2, Faizal Parish 3 1_GCP International."— Presentation transcript:

1 Tropical Peatlands: Global Impacts, Regional Vulnerability and Local Adaptation Pep Canadell 1, Daniel Murdiyarso 2, Faizal Parish 3 1_GCP International Project Office, CSIRO, Canberra, Australia 2_CIFOR-CGIAR, Bogor, Indonesia 3_Global Environment Centre, Selangor, Malaysia

2 Global Peatland Distribution 450 Pg C 42 Million ha (10%) (GACGC, 2000) Page et al. 2004

3 Global Peatland Distribution 450 Pg C (GACGC, 2000) 60% Borneo Sumatra West Papua Thailand

4 Tropical Peatlands in Indonesia 20 M ha are in Indonesia Stocks of up to 50 Pg C Formed over a period of 10,000 year (10K-35K) Depth ranges 1-12 m (max. 20 m) Store 5,800 t C/ha (> 10 x tropical forests) Page et al. 2002; Others

5 Fire & Haze from Sumatra and Kalimantan-El Niño September 1997 Area burned: >8 M ha Carbon Emissions: Pg C Page et al. 2002

6 Emissions Pg C Equivalent to: 13-40% annual FF emissions Comparable to: Net terrestrial Sink (1-3 Pg C yr-1) Carbon Released from Indonesian Fires Page et al. 2002

7 Spatial Distribution of the CO 2 Growth Perturbations Rodenbeck et al Flux Anomalies El Nino (June 1997-May 1998 [gC/m2/yr]) Flux Anomalies La Nina (Oct 1998-Sept 1999 [gC/m2/yr])

8 Attribution of the CO 2 Growth Perturbation The ratios of CO 2 to H, CH 4, CO (fire) for the globe: 0.8 – 3.7 Pg C Langenfelds et al. 2002, Randerson et al δ 13 CO 2 tells how much of the increased fire emissions are due to emissions from forested regions (mostly C 3 plants) versus tropical-subtrp. savannas dominated by C 4 δ13C in C 3 plants more negative than C 4

9 Large Global Impacts from Small Regions Indonesia: 8 M ha (Ruitenbeek 1999) H igh C density of the peatland which dominates many swamps lowland forests South America: >10 M ha (Barbosa & Fearnside1999) Atmospheric CO 2 Growth Rate

10 SOI El Niño events Why this disproportionate (to the area) impact?

11 This type of events also occurred in tropical Amazonia and Australia but not as serious as in Indonesia Why so intense in Indonesia? 1. Because what burned was one of the highest carbon-density region in the world, ie, peatland which dominates many swamps lowland forests Store 5,800 t C/ha (> 10 x tropical forests)

12 Pests and weeds control The economic value of the biomass ‘waste’ is so low Smallholders’ wood pricing discourages producers Interaction with Use of Fire Fire is the cheapest method for land clearing Fire can add ash that temporarily improve soil conditions Courtesy of Daniel Murdiyarso

13 2. Collapse of Suharto government (1998) and associated socio-economic problems Rapid escalation of illegal logging activities Needs of agricultural land expansion Growing oil-palm and pulpwood industries Unclear tenure systems 3. Loss of self-sufficiency in rice production in Indonesia Mega Rice Project (1995) –Over-drainage –Biomass burning –People immigrations and human settlements Interactions with two other Human-Driven Changes ++Fire

14 The Mega Rice Project – Central Kalimantan In 1995, 1 Million ha of Central Kalimantan (Borneo) were cut down to be replaced by rice paddies to serve as the rice bowl of an ever growing Indonesian population. 4,600 km of canals to drain the region. Tens of thousands of landless Javanese were brought in to tend the Mega Rice Project. Aldhous 2004

15 The Mega Rice Project – Central Kalimantan The drainage made the soil too dry and the peat turned to be too acid for rice to grow. The project was abandoned and many immigrants fled Borneo, leaving a legacy of fire that returns each year during the dry season, from July to late October. Even without fire, drained peatlands are a source of CO 2 for many years.

16 IndonesiaAmazonia Fire Rotation % Forest Distance from road (m) Cochrane 2003

17 Southeast Asia Sumatra Kalimantan8.4? Indonesia2017 Decreasing Peatland Area (Mha) Courtesy of Daniel Murdiyarso

18 Negative Impacts to Local and Regional Development The haze extended across Southeast Asia, and cost more than US$4.5 billion in lost tourism and business Smoke caused hundreds of deaths in smoke related accidents, including ship, automobile and plane crashes Thousands more died from smoke-related illnesses Unrest with Native communities due to establishment of megaprojects and subsequent failure. Lost of freshwater resources, largely fishing, important to local communities. Transmigration reversed and people fled back to Java The massive increase global GHG emissions could have been an unperceived and to some extent irrelevant event to the region, except for the fact that fires and haze did bring many negative impacts home:

19 Vulnerabilities of Peatlands-Carbon-Climate System Perturbation of the Climate System (warming) Vulnerable C Pools C Emissions (+)

20 Vulnerabilities of Peatlands-Carbon-Climate System Perturbation of the Climate System (warming) Vulnerable C Pools C Emissions X Land Use (+)

21 Vulnerabilities of Peatlands-Carbon-Climate System Perturbation of the Climate System (warming) Vulnerable C Pools C Emissions X Land Use (+) Haze Drought Freshwater Res. Forest Resources

22 Vulnerabilities of Peatlands-Carbon-Climate System Perturbation of the Climate System (warming) Vulnerable C Pools C Emissions X Land Use (+) (-) Haze Drought Freshwater Res. Forest Resources Negative Impacts to Local & Regional Communities

23 Building Resilience Mitigation (restoring) Adaptation (preserving) Instruments available: Local and Regional National and International

24 Local and Regional Scale Instruments and Options By providing attractive livelihood options to local communities with income generating activities consistent with sustainable management of peatlands: –Traditional forest-based fish ponds and river fishing –Alternative fire-free agriculture –Timber and non-timber forest products Latex Rattan Firewood For Protection of the swamp forest

25 National and International Policy Instruments ASEAN Regional Action Plan on Transboundary Haze Rio-Agenda 21 on Sustainable Development International Conventions: – Ramsar - wetlands Conservation and restoration of peatlands – FCCC - climate change No obligation of Indonesia to reduce GHG emissions under Kyoto It is a signatory of Kyoto Protocol Clean Development Mechanisms – carbon trading – reforestation credits Non-Kyoto mechanisms – credits for emission avoidance (credits for not deforesting) – CBD – biodiveristy Conservation of ecosystems for conservation of biodiversity for Rehabilitation and Protection of peatlands

26 Vulnerabilities of Peatlands-Carbon-Climate System SE Asia Tropical Peatland Synthesis: Carbon stocks Drivers of change Biogeochemical modeling Input into GCMs APN project ( ) Tropical forests and climate change adaptation: criteria and indicators for adaptive management for reduced vulnerability and long-term sustainability EU project ( ) Regional Climate (Dickinson) and Land Use Change (?) Scenarios Tropical Peatlands

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