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Reducing carbon emissions from Indonesia’s peat lands COP15 December 2009 COP15 December 2009 Reducing carbon emissions from Indonesia’s peat lands COP15.

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Presentation on theme: "Reducing carbon emissions from Indonesia’s peat lands COP15 December 2009 COP15 December 2009 Reducing carbon emissions from Indonesia’s peat lands COP15."— Presentation transcript:

1 Reducing carbon emissions from Indonesia’s peat lands COP15 December 2009 COP15 December 2009 Reducing carbon emissions from Indonesia’s peat lands COP15 December 2009 COP15 December 2009 Reducing carbon emissions from Indonesia’s peat lands Interim Report of a Multi-Disciplinary Study Presented at Wetlands International Side Event 11 December 2009 COP 15, Copenhagen, Denmark Reducing carbon emissions from Indonesia’s peat lands Interim Report of a Multi-Disciplinary Study Presented at Wetlands International Side Event 11 December 2009 COP 15, Copenhagen, Denmark BAPPENAS REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA

2 Reducing carbon emissions from Indonesia’s peat lands COP15 December 2009 COP15 December 2009 Reducing carbon emissions from Indonesia’s peat lands COP15 December 2009 COP15 December 2009 The objective of this analysis is to assess the potential for reducing emissions from the country’s peat lands. The analysis assesses – the present extent, land use and land cover of Indonesia’s peat lands, – the magnitude of current peat land emissions, – the possible carbon abatement potentials under the three different policy scenarios, – the economic costs and benefits of specific policy options and actions to reduce emissions, and – the potential application of national and international policy instruments to achieve GHG emission reductions in Indonesia’s peat land. THE STUDY THE STUDY

3 Reducing carbon emissions from Indonesia’s peat lands COP15 December 2009 COP15 December 2009 Reducing carbon emissions from Indonesia’s peat lands COP15 December 2009 COP15 December 2009 INDONESIA’S PEAT LANDS INDONESIA’S PEAT LANDS Indonesia has around 21 million hectares of peat. Peat more than 3m thick (around 8million hectares) is protected by law. In 2006, more than 55% of peat land was forested. Other peat land covers include cropland (14%) and shrub/grassland (20%) Almost ¼ of Indonesia’s peatland is protected/conserved. About 3.3 million of this is still forested. As of 2006, forestry & plantation licences on peat = 5.6 million hectares. Agriculture, plantation timber & plantation crops cover more than 3 million hectares of land for development. Although protected by law, more than 2.5million hectares of peat land over 3m deep is allocated for development.

4 Reducing carbon emissions from Indonesia’s peat lands COP15 December 2009 COP15 December 2009 Reducing carbon emissions from Indonesia’s peat lands COP15 December 2009 COP15 December 2009 THE EMISSIONS OF PEAT LANDS THE EMISSIONS OF PEAT LANDS Indonesia has an average annual net emission of 903 Mt CO2 yr-1 between 2000 and 2006 This estimate is based on: Estimates of emissions from oxidation of 220 Mt CO2/yr using land use and land cover data from and previously published emissions factors. Loss of Above-Ground Biomass of 210 Mt CO2/yr based on past rates of deforestation and carbon stock in peat swamp forests. Fire emissions estimate of 470 Mt CO2/y, based on published data and the Second National Communication. The majority of the peat emissions result from uncontrolled burning (contributing 46% of total emissions), peat oxidation (25%) and biomass removal (24%) with the main source regions being Sumatra (44%) and Kalimantan (40%).

5 Reducing carbon emissions from Indonesia’s peat lands COP15 December 2009 COP15 December 2009 Reducing carbon emissions from Indonesia’s peat lands COP15 December 2009 COP15 December 2009 Peat land areas contribute to the national economy principally through the forestry, plantations and agriculture sectors: Plantations & forestry sectors contributed 3% (USD12.6 billion) [2007] Oil palm plantation sector contributed 0.85% of GDP & 3 million jobs. But highly carbon intensive: Peat land contributes approx USD1.06billion (or 0.26%) of Indonesia’s total GDP yet accounts for almost 50% of emissions. Carbon intensity of the 7 “peat provinces” (90% of Indonesia’s peat) is 22.1 kg of CO2 / US dollar of GRDP. THE ECONOMICS of PEAT LAND THE ECONOMICS of PEAT LAND

6 Reducing carbon emissions from Indonesia’s peat lands COP15 December 2009 COP15 December 2009 Reducing carbon emissions from Indonesia’s peat lands COP15 December 2009 COP15 December 2009 MITIGATION POTENTIAL MITIGATION POTENTIAL The BAU scenario assumes all peat areas currently allocated to companies are developed with fire emissions continuing based on historical emissions, which provides an estimated increase in emissions to 1,387 Mt CO 2 yr -1 by The potential emissions under each of three main policy measures are estimated and compared to the BAU scenario Up to 92 % reduction on BAU is possible by 2025 through: 1. Legal compliance and best management practices in existing land under production Mt CO 2 or 24 % reduction 2. Peat land rehabilitation and prevention of uncontrolled fires Mt CO 2 or 31 % reduction 3. Revision of land allocation, forest conservation and land swaps that direct future development away from peat land Mt CO 2 or 37 % reduction

7 Reducing carbon emissions from Indonesia’s peat lands COP15 December 2009 COP15 December 2009 Reducing carbon emissions from Indonesia’s peat lands COP15 December 2009 COP15 December 2009 MITIGATION POTENTIAL MITIGATION POTENTIAL

8 Reducing carbon emissions from Indonesia’s peat lands COP15 December 2009 COP15 December 2009 Reducing carbon emissions from Indonesia’s peat lands COP15 December 2009 COP15 December 2009 Preliminary analysis of the opportunity costs of protecting unlicensed peat, and shifting future development onto mineral soil: There is a net positive benefit on GDP, and to a lesser extent on tax revenues and local revenues In terms of macro impact, unlikely to involve opportunity cost due to availability of land at national level. But an opportunity cost still exists at the local level, especially in districts with little alternative land available. Here, the cost will need to be borne by carbon revenue THE ECONOMIC OUTLOOK THE ECONOMIC OUTLOOK

9 Reducing carbon emissions from Indonesia’s peat lands COP15 December 2009 COP15 December 2009 Reducing carbon emissions from Indonesia’s peat lands COP15 December 2009 COP15 December 2009 NET POSITIVE BENEFIT OF REVISING LAND ALLOCATION, PERMITS NET POSITIVE BENEFIT OF REVISING LAND ALLOCATION, PERMITS

10 Reducing carbon emissions from Indonesia’s peat lands COP15 December 2009 COP15 December 2009 Reducing carbon emissions from Indonesia’s peat lands COP15 December 2009 COP15 December 2009 THE BUSINESS OUTLOOK THE BUSINESS OUTLOOK (1)Implementing Best Practices in Oil Palm on Peat Comparison of a standard ‘business as usual’ model with a ‘best practice’ model: Improving yields and financial performance reduces pressure to open up new peat land. The average regional GDP (GRDP) produced by a best practice plantation is more than double that produced on a BAU plantation. If 500,000 hectares of peat land plantations are upgraded to best practice management, a further 500,000 hectares would not need to be converted. The costs of “best practice” are $1,405 per hectare (discounted at 15%). But the benefit is worth $4,626 – a return on investment of over 22%.

11 Reducing carbon emissions from Indonesia’s peat lands COP15 December 2009 COP15 December 2009 Reducing carbon emissions from Indonesia’s peat lands COP15 December 2009 COP15 December 2009 THE BUSINESS OUTLOOK THE BUSINESS OUTLOOK (2)Land Swaps from Peat Land to Mineral Soils Assessment of the economic viability of shifting planned plantations to degraded mineral soils: Net land available for oil palm expansion on degraded mineral soils is 8 million ha. Sufficient to cover planned increase in palm oil production up to Assuming a best practice management, degraded land offers superior rates of return (18.6%) than either unforested (11.3%) or forested peat land (12.9%). A strong case to review and consider revised business models such as enhanced community-business partnership models or innovative community-based plantation models. A key success factor for working on degraded mineral land will be Free, Prior and Informed Consent (FPIC) for the participation of local communities and farmers as business partners.

12 Reducing carbon emissions from Indonesia’s peat lands COP15 December 2009 COP15 December 2009 Reducing carbon emissions from Indonesia’s peat lands COP15 December 2009 COP15 December 2009 ENABLING LAWS AND INSITUTIONS ENABLING LAWS AND INSITUTIONS The current policy, institutional and legal environment regarding peat land management in Indonesia is currently under review Policies are already in place to regulate peat-land management including limits on developing peat > 3 metres deep, zero burning, and water management But to reduce emissions at scale, there is still a need for: A more effective institutional framework for peat and lowland, e.g. to address overlapping mandates A performance-based framework to promote best practice A national strategy, plan and finance for peat land rehabilitation and fire prevention in degraded peat lands A comprehensive review of spatial planning e.g. to assess scope for shifting future development onto mineral soil A review of experience on land swaps and the potential to scale up experience from pilots to a national scale policy and program The development of peat land carbon policies and their articulation at the international level

13 Reducing carbon emissions from Indonesia’s peat lands COP15 December 2009 COP15 December 2009 Reducing carbon emissions from Indonesia’s peat lands COP15 December 2009 COP15 December 2009 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: This study is commissioned and led by the Indonesian National Development Planning Agency (BAPPENAS), with the support of experts from the Ministry of Forestry, the Ministry of Agriculture, the Bogor Agricultural Institute (IPB), and the Indonesian Centre for Environmental Law (ICEL). The UK Department for International Development and the Netherlands Ministry for Development Cooperation have provided co-funding.

14 Reducing carbon emissions from Indonesia’s peat lands COP15 December 2009 COP15 December 2009 Reducing carbon emissions from Indonesia’s peat lands COP15 December 2009 COP15 December 2009 Thank you Directorate of Forestry and Water Resources Conservation


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