Rebellion in Lower Canada Mass protests followed the announcement of the Russell Revolutions Papineau had the support of the habitant farmers and he roamed the countryside rousing the people with speeches. Early in November, 1837, there was rioting in Montreal and on November 16, soldiers began arresting the Patriote leaders. Papineau escaped to the village of St. Denis, northeast of Montreal
Events that followed On November 23, a battle raged around St. Denis and the Patriotes succeeded in forcing the soldiers to retreat On November 25, the soldiers again attacked the Patriotes at the village of St. Charges. The soldiers were successful and Papineau escaped to Vermont, but Nelson was arrested.
Third Battle A third battle took place at St. Eustache. The resistance was lead by Jean-Oliver Chenier Patriots took refuge in the village church, but could not defeat the British soldiers. The church was burned to the ground and many Patriotes were killed. Soldiers burned all the houses in the village, stole livestock, and destroyed all village possessions 27 Soldiers and 298 Patriotes died in this battle.
Rebellion in Upper Canada Mackenzie established links with the Patrioes of lower Canada, and began plotting to take over the government in 1837 The outbreak in Lower Canada spurred him into action He gathered with his supporters to Montgomery’s Tavern, just north of Toronto
Armed Protest? According to Mackenzie, the gathering was intended to be an armed protest march down Yonge St. The protestors carried arms for self-defence only. A group of Loyalists led by Colonel Moodie attempted to ride through the protestors to warn the governor and fired a shot over the heads of the protestors The rebels retaliated and Colonial Moodie was shot dead
Hesitation This outbreak caused Mackenzie to hesitate, rather than head directly into the city. The government now could organize and the lack of action on Mackenzie’s part caused many of the rebels to desert.
Mackenzie Escapes Mackenzie waited for the government attack, which was only a brief exchange of fire, many were killed or wounded Mackenzie escaped to the United States, but Lount, Van Egmond, and Matthews were captured. American Sympathizers of the Canadian cause established Hunter’s Lodges in Lower Canada to form what we now call a guerilla army.
Border Disputes Raid were carried out into Upper and Lower Canada during the winter and Canadians crossed the Niagara River to capture and burn a rebel supply ship (the Caroline) The Border disputes brought Britain and the United States almost to the brink of another war, but the rebel raiding gradually ended. Mackenzie returned to Canada as did other exiles, but many of them chose to remain in the U.S.
Results of the Rebellions After the rebellions in Upper and Lower Canada had been put down, and the leaders jailed, executed or exiled, the British government decided to investigate the causes of the rebellions They sent Lord Durham to the Canadas to do this, and find a solution.
Sent to Canada in May 1838 to try and quell the rebellion He was to be the Governor General and would represent the British Crown He spent 3 months in Upper Canada, 2 months in Lower Canada Returned to England with the “Durham Report” He died before he could see any of his work come into effect.
Durham Report 1.Upper and Lower Canada should be united. - “vain attempt to preserve a French Canadian Nationality” - wanted to assimilate the French into the English 2.The government of the colony should have the power in the hands of the elected assembly. -Representative government was not working, funds should be decided by the Legislative Assembly 3.Municipal governments should be created for towns. - Give people control over their own affairs. So that Lower Canada was not stuck with a government system they did not understand.
Durham Report 4. Eventually all of British North America should be united. - Proposed a legislative and federal system of government. (Federal would only control matters important to all provinces. 5. Solve the Absentee Landlord Problem in P.E.I - This was not solved until Confederation
Durham Upper Canada “was controlled by a petty, corrupt, insolent Tory clique” (Family Compact) Lower Canada had the “one race problem” – he called the French Canadians a group with no literature and no History. Durham was praised a hero in U.C. but denounced in L.C. because of this criticism
Union Act of 1840 Canada would now exist under one name “The Province of Canada”