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Patterns of Actor and Partner Effects David A. Kenny February 17, 2013

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You need to know the Actor Partner Interdependence Model! 2 APIM

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APIM Patterns: Couple Model Model – Equal actor and partner effects: a = p –e.g., my depressive symptoms has the same effect on my quality of life as does my partner’s depressive symptoms on my quality of life Average or sum as the predictor –Although measured individually, the predictor variable is a “dyadic” variable, not an individual one 3

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APIM Patterns: Contrast Model –Actor plus partner effects equals zero: a – p = 0 –Klumb et al. (2006): time spent doing household labor on stress levels The more household labor I do, the more stressed I feel. The more household labor my partner does, the less stress I feel. Difference score (actor X minus partner X) as the predictor 4

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APIM Patterns: Actor or Partner Only Actor Only –Actor present but no partner effect –Fix the partner effect to zero. Partner Only –Partner present but no partner effect –Fix the actor effect to zero. –Relatively rare. 5

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Testing Patterns Multilevel Modeling –Sum and difference approach Structural Equation Modeling –Setting coefficients equal –Use of phantom variables General approach to patterns: k 6

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Sum and Difference Approach Remove the actor and partner variables from the model. Add to the model the Sum and the Difference score as predictors. If Sum is present, but not the Difference, you have a couple model. If Sum is not present, but the Difference is, you have a contrast model. 7

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Acitelli Example Distinguishable –Husbands Sum: 0.392, p <.001 Difference: 0.131, p =.088 –Wives Sum: 0.373, p <.001 Difference: 0.001, p =.986 Indistinguishable –Sum: 0.344, p <.001 –Difference: 0.056, p =.052 8

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Testing the Couple Model Using SEM Actor effect equal to the partner effect. Can be done by setting paths equal. Distinguishable dyads a 1 = p 12 and a 2 = p 21 Indistinguishable dyads a = p 9

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Acitelli Example Distinguishable –Husbands: 0.346 –Wives: 0.347 –Test: 2 (2) = 4.491, p =.106 Indistinguishable –Effect: 0.344 –Test: 2 (1) = 3.803, p =.051 10

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Testing the Contrast Model Using SEM Actor effect equal to the partner effect times minus 1. Can be done by using a phantom variable. Phantom variable –No conceptual meaning –Forces a constraint –Latent variable –No disturbance 11

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X1X1 X2X2 Y1Y1 Y2Y2 E1E1 E2 1 1 a1a1 a2a2 P1P1 a1a1 P2P2 a2a2 Contrast Constraint Forced by Phantom Variables (P1 and P2) Now the indirect effect from X 2 to Y 1, p 12 equals (-1)a 1 12

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Acitelli Example 2 (2) = 69.791, p <.001 13

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Conclusion Using patterns can link the APIM to theory and simplify the model. The k parameter is a general way to measure and test patterns Readings pp. 147-149, in Dyadic Data Analysis by Kenny, Kashy, and Cook Kenny & Cook, (1999), Personal Relationships, 6, pp. 433-448. 14

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