8Progressive past and present tenses Progressive past – The hen was walking across the yard.Progressive present – The hen is walking across the yard.
9To be Present tense Past tense I am I You are You He/she/it is We areWeYou areThey areThey
10Nouns The hen walked across the yard. Top tip If you can put a, an or the in front of a single word – it’s a noun!
11Adjectives and expanded noun phrases The little fat hen walked across the yard.Adjectives give us more information about a noun
12Adverbs tell us how something happens The little fat hen walked slowly across the yard.Adverbs tell us how something happens
13Determiners The little fat hen walked slowly across the yard. Determiners go in front of nouns (and their adjectives) to tell us which person or thing the sentence is about or how much or how many of them there are
14Prepositions The little fat hen walked slowly across the yard. Prepositions link nouns to other parts of a sentence. They often tell us about position or direction
15Conjunctions link words or groups of words The little fat hen walked slowly across the yard but she didn’t see the fox.Conjunctions link words or groups of words
16Pronouns are used in place of a noun. The little fat hen walked slowly across the yard but she didn’t see the fox.Pronouns are used in place of a noun.
17A model sentenceThe little fat hen walked slowly across the yard but she didn’t see the fox.Determiner adjective adjective noun verb adverb preposition determiner noun conjunction pronoun verb verb determiner noun.
18Grammar – a whole school approach Oral language, modellingExtensive exposure to written languageShared Reading and BooktalkShared Writing and BooktalkDrama and Role PlayLanguage Games (sentence level and vocab)Talking about Language (metalanguage)Regular, enjoyable, purposeful practice
21What does a monster look like? Well…hairy and scary,And furry and burly,And pimply and dimply,And warty and naughty,And wrinkled and crinkled ...That’s what a monster looks like!
22How does a monster move? It oozes. It shambles. It crawls and it ambles.It slouches and shuffles and trudges.It lumbers and waddles,It creeps and it toddles…That’s how a monster moves!
23How does a monster eat? It slurps and it burps And gobbles and gulps It slurps and it burpsAnd gobbles and gulpsAnd sips and swallows and scoffs,It nibbles and munches,It chews and it crunches…That’s how a monster eats.
24What does a monster eat? Slugs and bats. And bugs and rats. And stones and mudAnd bones and blood.And squelchy squids…And NOSEY KIDS!THAT’S WHAT A MONSTER EATS!
25Where does a monster live? In garden sheds,Under beds,In wardrobes, in plug holes, in ditches.Beneath city streets,Just under your feet…That’s where a monster lives!
26– in the context of a Writing for Real Unit Grammarthrough apicture book– in the context of a Writing for Real UnitY3 - 4
27Teaching Grammar Descriptive, not prescriptive Conventions, not rules Implicit knowledge will always be greater than, and will always precede, explicit knowledgeExplicit knowledge helps when we want to talk about languageShould enable, not disable
29Teaching grammar through reading and writing Reading aloudUsing Booktalk: Likes, Dislikes, Puzzles, PatternsText marking and highlightingGrammar challengesCloze procedureMessing about with sentencesCreate a writer’s toolkitShadowing the text
30Cloze procedureLeave one or more deletion free sentences at the beginning to give reader an idea of what passage is aboutDeletions can be according to a numerical systemDeletions can be particular word class(es)Make sure there are enough cues left in the text
31Modal verbs to show degrees of possibility Each of you will give a 5 minute presentation on your project to the rest of the class.
32will would can could may might shall should must ought Each of you will give a 5 minute presentation on your project to the rest of the class.willwouldcancouldmaymightshallshouldmustought
33Why use the passive voice? When we don’t know who did it or we want to hide that informationTo emphasise what happened rather than who did somethingThe window has been broken.
34Subject and object A guide led the class into a room. The subject is the person or thing doing the action. It is the noun before the verb.The object is the person or thing that is acted on. It is normally the noun after the verb.
35Active and passive voice A guide led the class into a room.(The subject is doing the action)PassiveThe class was led into a room by the guide.(The subject is having the action done to it)The class was led into a room.
36Messing about with sentences Write up a sentenceAdd adjectivesChange the verbChange the final nounAdd an adverbExtend the sentence by using ‘because’Move the end to the beginningMove the adverb
37Create a writer’s toolkit Look at the author’s techniquesWhat can we borrow?
38Stumbling blocksLess and fewer - Use less with uncountable nouns and fewer with countable nouns e.g. We have had less rain and fewer showers this year.
39Stumbling blocksI and me when talking about two people e.g. John and me/I went to school. He gave the sweets to John and me/I.Take out the other person. Which pronoun makes sense?I went to school. John and I went to school.He gave the sweets to me. He gave the sweets to John and me.
40Key principles Teach in context Use games and kinaesthetic approaches Use problem solving and investigative approachesUse correct terminology‘Notice’ when reading‘Borrow’ when writing
42Comma sense Lists – if the comma can be replaced with and or or Parentheses – either side of a phrase or clause that gives extra detail but which can be removed leaving the sentence gramatically correctIntroduction to a sentence – adverbs, -ed, -ing words, time, place, condition, frequency, fact
43Commas in lists The little fat hen walked across the yard. He has spiky grey hair, piercing blue eyes, a sharp tongue and a dry sense of humour.I went to the shop and bought bread, milk and cheese.
44Commas for parenthesis He stood, as if waiting, by the chair.
45Suddenly he was falling, and his life went past in small, square pictures, framed in the windows of the cockpit. There were his family; his house; his friends; his wedding; his dog. There were pictures of the Past and pictures of the Future, too – all the things he had meant to do and now never would: bridges, faces, dawns, and sunsets.Smile by Geraldine McCaughrean
46Stumbling blocks Its and It’s It’s stands for IT IS or IT HAS and nothing elseWords ending in sThat is James’ book.PluralsThose are the boys’ bags.