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Leonid Iomdin Institute for Information Transmission Problems, Russian Academy of Sciences

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1 Leonid Iomdin Institute for Information Transmission Problems, Russian Academy of Sciences

2 Program Overview: p Basic Principles of The Meaning-Text theory by Igor Mel’čuk. Language as a Universal Translator of Senses to Texts and Texts to Senses. Text analysis and text generation. The theory of integral linguistic description by Juri Apresjan. The grammar and the dictionary of language. 2. Two syntactic levels of sentence representation: surface syntax and deep syntax. December 14, Lectures 9-102

3 Program Overview: p The dependency tree structure as a syntactic representation of the sentence. Dependency tree vs. Constituent tree: advantages and drawbacks of both types of representation. Limits of the dependency tree. The hypothesis of two syntactic starts. 4. The notions of syntactic relation. Major classes of syntactic relations: actant, attributive, coordinative and auxiliary relation classes. 5. The notion of syntactic feature. Syntactic features vs. Semantic features. December 14, Lectures 9-103

4 Program Overview: p Actants and valencies. Active, passive and distant valencies. The government pattern of a dictionary entry. An overview of actant syntactic relations. The predicative relation. The agentive relation. Completive relations. 7. An overview of attributive syntactic relations. Grammatical Agreement. Numerals and Quantitative Constructions. The system of Quantification Syntax of Russian. 8. Grammatical coordination as a type of grammatical subordination. An overview of coordinative syntactic relations. December 14, Lectures 9-104

5 Program Overview: p Auxiliary syntactic relations. Analytical grammatical forms as an object of syntax. 10 Microsyntax of Language. Minor Type Sentences. Syntactic Idioms. 11. Lexical Functions in the Dictionary and the Grammar. 12. Syntactic description and syntactic rules. Dependency Syntax in NLP. Dependency Syntax in Machine Translation. Syntactically Tagged Corpus of Texts. December 14, Lectures 9-105

6 Classes of Syntactic Relations 1) actant relations; 2) attributive relations; 3) coordinative relations; 4) auxiliary relations December 14, Lectures 9-106

7 Class of Coordinative Relations 1 ) Coordinative Relation proper 2) Sentential-Coordinative Relation 3) Coordinative-Conjunctive Relation 4) Sequential Relation December 14, Lectures 9-107

8 Coordination as Type of Subordination Why? 1)there is no distinct boundary between subordination and coordination: slow and sure  slow but sure  slow if sure  slow though sure brave new world  brave, new world  brave and new world rus. Ivan i Marija prishli = Ivan s Mariej prishli Ivan and Maria came vs. Ivan with Maria came David and Goliath fought = David fought with Goliaph Sarkozy, Merkel to improve bilateral ties December 14, Lectures 9-108

9 Coordination as Type of Subordination Why? 1)there is no distinct boundary between subordination and coordination: John Hopkins, University Professor and Member of the Parliament, once said… = John Hopkins, University Professor, Member of the Parliament, once said… December 14, Lectures 9-109

10 Coordination as Type of Subordination Why? 2)they say that coordinated words are symmetrical and permutative, while subordinated ones are not: John and Mary = Mary and John vs. Lesson of wisdom ≠ Wisdom of lesson However, this is not always so: Try and catch me ≠ Catch and try me. Moreover: and instantiates a valency of try: Try and catch me = Try to catch me December 14, Lectures

11 Coordination as Type of Subordination Russian has many more verbs that have such a property. Pytat’sja ‘try’ is not among them but its approximate synonym, starat’sja ‘do one’s best’, is: On nakonec postaralsja i sdal ekzamen ‘Finally he did his best and passed the exam” On oshibsja i poshel v protivopolozhnuju storonu ‘He made a mistake and went the opposite way’ : interpretation verb Izlovchilsja i vyrvalsja iz ruk policejskogo ‘he contrived to tear himself away from the policeman’ December 14, Lectures

12 Coordination as Type of Subordination No permutation in a sequence of actions: He stood up and said something ≠ He said something and stood up. No permutation in simultaneous actions: They were sitting on the balcony and playing chess vs. *They were playing chess and sitting on the balcony. December 14, Lectures

13 Coordinative Relation proper The relation is restrictedly repeatable: a node my have one or two coordinative daughters, but not three. You have to choose between very fast [X1, X2] but [Y1] expensive and [Y2] cheap [X3] but [Y3] slow processors December 14, Lectures coord-conj

14 Coordinative Relation It always goes from left to right: John [X1], Mary [Y1,X2] and [Y2] Bill Parents teach their children how to behave [X1], think [Y1,X2], feel [Y2,X3] and [Y4] perceive. Parents teach their children how to [X1] behave, to [Y1,X2] think, to [Y2,X3] feel and [Y3] to perceive. December 14, Lectures coord-conj

15 Coordinative Relation Coordinated conjunctions Before [X1], unless [Y1, X2] and [Y2] until they are corrupted, most infants seem to be loving. Coordinated saturated prepositions He spoke with [X] passion and [Y] with real eloquence. December 14, Lectures coord-conj

16 Coordinative Relation Coordinated unsaturated prepositions with [X] or [Y] without clothes. Coordination of words belonging to different parts of speech … production [X1], commercial [Y1, X2] and [Y2] financial support December 14, Lectures coord-conj

17 Coordinative Relation How large can the group of those going to the station be? Who may make up this group? John and Mary or Steven and Jane will go to the station. December 14, Lectures

18 Sentential -Coordinative Relation The relation is restrictedly repeatable and it also always goes from left to right, too: John left [X], Mary stayed [Y] John left [X], but [Y] Mary stayed December 14, Lectures coord-conj

19 Sentential -Coordinative Relation John left [X1,X2] but [Y1] Mary stayed and [Y2] Steven ran but Jane walked December 14, Lectures coord-conj

20 Coordinative-Conjunctive Relation In coordinative constructions, coordinative and coordinative- conjunctive relations normally match each other He jogs and [X] swims [Y] every morning. December 14, Lectures coord

21 Coordinative-Conjunctive Relation An exception is the conjunction that opens a sentence: But [X] I don’t [Y]. Or [X] at least he seems [Y] to. And where is he now? December 14, Lectures coord-conj

22 Sequential Relation Russian [X] – American [Y] talks Man [X] -machine [Y] interaction The score was 2 [X] :3 [Y]. The score was 2 [X] to [Y] 3. December 14, Lectures compos prepos

23 Sequential Relation Russian [X] – American [Y] talks Ground [X] - to [Y]- air missiles 100 [X] to [Y] 200 crowns Levels one [X] through [Y] four December 14, Lectures compos prepos appos quantit prepos

24 Class of Auxiliary Relations 1 ) Analytical Relation 2) Passive-Analytical Relation 3) Quantitative-Auxiliary Relation 4) Phrasal-Junctive Relation 5) Parenthetical Relation 6) Expletive Relation 7) Explicative Relation 8) Correlative Relation 9) Colligative Relation December 14, Lectures

25 Analytical Relation He will [X] write [Y]. Will [X] he write [Y]? I do [X] not know [Y]. I don’t [X] know [Y]. They will [X1] have [Y1,X2] been [Y2,X3] going [Y3] by now. Had [X1] he arrived [Y1] sooner, it would [X2] have [Y2,X3] been [Y3] different. December 14, Lectures adverb

26 Analytical Relation He may have [X] written [Y] this. She is the most beautiful of all. She is more beautiful than Eve. December 14, Lectures restr attrib comparrestr 1-compl

27 Passive-Analytical Relation He was [X] told [Y] to go. I don’t like him being [X] hassled [Y]. I don’t like him being ill. Please be [X] prepared [Y] by 5 o’clock. Please be ready by 5 o’clock. December 14, Lectures copulat 1-compl

28 Quantitative-Auxiliary Relation Thirty [Y]-one [X] questions have been answered. The thirty [Y]- first [X] question was the hardest of all. Twenty [Y] two [X] and a half tons. December 14, Lectures

29 Quantitative-Auxiliary Relation December 14, Lectures

30 Quantitative-Auxiliary Relation December 14, Lectures One hundred and twenty tons.

31 Phrasal-Junctive Relation He turned [X] away [Y]. She came [X] in [Y=IN2]. She came in [IN1] the room. I go [X] in [Y] for sports. December 14, Lectures compl 1-compl

32 Parenthetical Relation We have [X], then [Y], the following results. Honestly [Y], I’d [X]rather stay here. He runs the risk of being sacked, or, at [Y] any rate, of [X] making an enemy. December 14, Lectures

33 Parenthetical Relation You are [X] right, I believe [Y]. I believe you are right. I believe that you are right. You are [X] right, it seems [Y]. It seems you are right. It seems that you are right. December 14, Lectures

34 Expletive Relation It [X] seems that [Y] you are right. It shows that you are right. The experiment shows that you are right. *The experiment seems that you are right. It [X] seems you [Y] are right. It [X] is more useful to [Y] look for the missing element. Must it [X] be decided which way to [Y] choose? I find it [X] strange that [Y] he didn’t show up. December 14, Lectures

35 Explicative Relation He told [X]me that he had been to a concert, which was [Y] a lie. I found [X] a room, which was [Y] nice. I found a room which was nice. December 14, Lectures relat

36 Correlative Relation Neither John nor Mary appeared. Both John and Mary appeared. Either John or Mary will come. Neither John, nor Mary, nor Jack will come. December 14, Lectures

37 Correlative Relation Neither John, nor Mary, nor Jack will come. December 14, Lectures

38 Colligative Relation The relation describes pseudo- passive constructions with stranded prepositions: He will be listened to by the authorities. He was done away with. December 14, Lectures

39 Colligative Relation Her bed this morning had not been slept [X] in [Y]. This house was lived in by George Washington. *Virginia was lived in by George Washington. This house was remained in by George Washington. The closet was slipped into by the thief. *The closet was slipped into by a piece of soap. December 14, Lectures

40 Colligative Relation Her child was taken good care [X] of [Y]. The ship was soon lost sight of. *This should be put an end to. December 14, Lectures

41 Next lectures Lexical Functions in the Dictionary and the Grammar. The hypothesis of two syntactic starts. Microsyntax of Language. Minor Type Sentences. Syntactic Idioms. December 14, Lectures


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