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Leonid Iomdin Institute for Information Transmission Problems, Russian Academy of Sciences

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Program Overview: p Basic Principles of The Meaning-Text theory by Igor Mel’čuk. Language as a Universal Translator of Senses to Texts and Texts to Senses. Text analysis and text generation. The theory of integral linguistic description by Juri Apresjan. The grammar and the dictionary of language. 2. Two syntactic levels of sentence representation: surface syntax and deep syntax. December 11, Lectures 7-82

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Program Overview: p The dependency tree structure as a syntactic representation of the sentence. Dependency tree vs. Constituent tree: advantages and drawbacks of both types of representation. Limits of the dependency tree. The hypothesis of two syntactic starts. 4. The notions of syntactic relation. Major classes of syntactic relations: actant, attributive, coordinative and auxiliary relation classes. 5. The notion of syntactic feature. Syntactic features vs. Semantic features. December 11, Lectures 7-83

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Program Overview: p Actants and valencies. Active, passive and distant valencies. The government pattern of a dictionary entry. An overview of actant syntactic relations. The predicative relation. The agentive relation. Completive relations. 7. An overview of attributive syntactic relations. Grammatical Agreement. Numerals and Quantitative Constructions. The system of Quantification Syntax of Russian. 8. Grammatical coordination as a type of grammatical subordination. An overview of coordinative syntactic relations. December 11, Lectures 7-84

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Program Overview: p Auxiliary syntactic relations. Analytical grammatical forms as an object of syntax. 10 Microsyntax of Language. Minor Type Sentences. Syntactic Idioms. 11. Lexical Functions in the Dictionary and the Grammar. 12. Syntactic description and syntactic rules. Dependency Syntax in NLP. Dependency Syntax in Machine Translation. Syntactically Tagged Corpus of Texts. December 11, Lectures 7-85

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Classes of Syntactic Relations 1) actant relations; 2) attributive relations; 3) coordinative relations; 4) auxiliary relations December 11, Lectures 7-86

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Subordinative-Conjunctival Relation If [X] you go [Y], I will go too. It is the duty of the student Without exception to be prudent If smarter than the teacher, tact Demands that you conceal the fact. December 11, Lectures 7-87

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Class of Attributive Relations 1-2) Modificative Relations 3) Determinative Relation 4) Possessive Relation 5) Attributive Relation proper 6) Composite Relation 7) Elective Relation 8) Relative Relation 9) Quantitative Relation 10) Adverbial Relation 11) Restrictive Relation 12) Appositive Relation December 11, Lectures 7-88

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Modificative Relations Modificative Relation proper Descriptive-modificative Relation December 11, Lectures 7-89

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Modificative Relation proper Good [Y] weather [X] A silly [Y] boy [X] December 11, Lectures 7-810

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Modificative Relation proper A good [Y] enough argument [X] Russian-American [Y] talks [X] Machine(-)readable [Y] dictionaries [X] December 11, Lectures restr compos

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Modificative Relation proper The preceding [Y] three chapters [X] Poorly explored [Y] territories [X] This is a good [Y] one! [X] The other [Y] two [X] were missing December 11, Lectures 7-812

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Modificative Relation proper An easy [Y] distinction [X] to draw As fancy [Y] a meal [X] as you could imagine December 11, Lectures compl

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Modificative Relation proper A scanning [Y] radar device [X] Real leather gloves (1) ‘Gloves from real leather’ Real [Y] leather [X] gloves (2)‘Real gloves from leather’ Real [Y] leather gloves [X] December 11, Lectures 7-814

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Modificative Relation proper Current generating circuit (1)‘Current that generates circuit’ (2)‘Circuit that generates current’ Current [Х] generating [Y] circuit Current generating [Y] circuit [X] December 11, Lectures compl compos

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Modificative Relation proper I bought a book yellow with age *I bought the book yellow with age I bought the book, yellow with age December 11, Lectures 7-816

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Modificative Relations Restrictive and Qualificative Modifiers December 11, Lectures 7-817

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December 11, Lectures Restrictive and Qualificative modifiers: an excursus (1) My sister who lives in Houston sent me her new book. (2) My sister, who lives in Houston, sent me her new book.

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December 11, Lectures Restrictive and Qualificative modifiers: an excursus (1) My sister who lives in Houston sent me her new book. My other sister didn’t send me anything. (2) My sister, who lives in Houston, sent me her new book. # My other sister didn’t send me anything.

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December 11, Lectures Restrictive and Qualificative modifiers: an excursus *He did not eat the mango, which was overripe *I did not buy the rug, which would have been perfect for the hall I did not buy the rug, which would have been perfect for money investment

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December 11, Lectures Restrictive and Qualificative modifiers: an excursus (1) My bloody tooth hurts like hell! (2) I am all right, only my bloody tooth hurts a little. (3) My bloody tooth hurts but all the other teeth are OK.

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Descriptive-Modificative Relation I bought a book yellow with age modificative SSyntR I bought the book, yellow with age descriptive-modificative SSyntR December 11, Lectures 7-822

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Descriptive-Modificative Relation An impassive secretary was reading the letter The secretary [X], impassive [Y], was reading the letter December 11, Lectures modif

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Descriptive-Modificative Relation ? An impassive Jane was reading the letter Jane, impassive, was reading the letter * An impassive she was reading the letter She, impassive, was reading the letter December 11, Lectures 7-824

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Determinative Relation This is a [Y] book [X] A [Y] very good and useful one [X] A [Y] hard day’s [X] work The [Y] book [X] was there. My [Y] book [X] was lost. That [Y] idea [X] was new to me. December 11, Lectures 7-825

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Determinative Relation Every [Y] serious student [X] must learn. *Every [Y] serious students [X] must learn. Every week [X] she visited me *Every weeks [X] she visited me Every seven days [X] he visited me. December 11, Lectures 7-826

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Determinative Relation His criticizing the book was out of place. Friends and family split apart without his being able to help it. This showing visitors around wastes time. *The showing visitors around wastes time. *A showing visitors around wastes time. December 11, Lectures 7-827

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Possessive Relation The boy’s [Y] bicycle [X] The boy’s [Y2] little girl’s [Y1] bicycle [X1,X2] Russia’s [Y] Medvedev A night’s [Y] ride The girl I danced with’s brother: NO STRUCTURE December 11, Lectures 7-828

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Possessive Relation (1) John’s [Y] committing [X] an adultery (2) John’ s and Mary’s committing [X] an adultery (3) John and Mary’s committing [X] an adultery In (2) and (3), where are the daughters of X? December 11, Lectures 7-829

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Attributive Relation (proper) a child [X] of [Y] the same age the symbol [X] to [Y] the right of the paragraph teenagers [X] above [Y] 14 The earth is millions of kilometers [X] from [Y] the sun December 11, Lectures attrib prepos 1-compl quasiagent

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Attributive Relation the best [X] place in [Y] the world the third [X 1,X 2 ] seat in [Y 1 ] the row from [Y 2 ] the right the most expensive car on [Y] earth a woman [X] twice John's age [Y] he has a complexion the colour of porridge December 11, Lectures [X]

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Attributive Relation a small town [X 1 ] ten miles [Y 1, X 2 ] from [Y 2 ] here it will cost 300 crowns [X] a day [Y] five crowns [X] every two copies [Y] He [X] himself [Y] I will come Monday [X] morning [Y] For all cases [X] above [Y] December 11, Lectures 7-832

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Composite Relation a stone [Y] wall [X] cf. a stone’s throw a single higher level [Y] unit [X] an eight man [Y] delegation [X] December 11, Lectures determ posess modif determ

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Composite Relation problem [Y 1 ] solving [X 1 ] and decision [Y 2 ] making [X 2 ] a first-year [Y] student [X] context [Y]-dependent [X] grammars diamond [Y]-shaped [X] figures two [Y]-legged [X] creature to bulk [Y] buy [X] goods December 11, Lectures 7-834

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Class of Attributive Relations 1-2) Modificative Relations 3) Determinative Relation 4) Possessive Relation 5) Attributive Relation proper 6) Composite Relation 7) Elective Relation 8) Relative Relation 9) Quantitative Relation 10) Adverbial Relation 11) Restrictive Relation 12) Appositive Relation December 11, Lectures 7-835

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Elective Relation the easiest [X] of [Y] the solutions the easier [X] of [Y] the solutions the first three [X] of [Y] the rules both [X] of [Y] us the strangest [X] among [Y] them all December 11, Lectures 7-836

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Relative Relation I spoke to the person [X] who was [Y] responsible for fire safety I spoke to the person, [X] who was [Y] responsible for fire safety I spoke to the person [X] that was [Y] responsible for fire safety December 11, Lectures 7-837

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Relative Relation The paper [X] on which I worked [Y] for months *The paper [X] on that I worked [Y] for months The paper [X] I worked [Y] on for months December 11, Lectures 7-838

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Relative Relation The man [X] whose daughter was [Y] a celebrity The man [X] with whose daughter I spoke [Y] The man [X] whose daughter I spoke [Y] with December 11, Lectures 7-839

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Quantitative Relation Thirty [Y] characters [X] a dozen [Y] bottles [X] there is but one [Y] person [X] left k-1 [Y] occurrences [X] three and a half tons a four [Y] line [X] poem he spent $600 December 11, Lectures 7-840

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Adverbial Relation They worked [X] hard [Y] We are [X] now [Y] preparing for the trip Such words freely [Y] co-occur [X] with degree adverbials Quickly [Y] though I walked [Y], I could hardly catch up with them At present, [Y] good orchestras seldom come [Y] to our town. December 11, Lectures 7-841

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Adverbial Relation We finished [Y] the paper last week [Y]. When giving [X] the talk Monday [Y], I announced that there was going to be an exam. This time [Y] he said [X] nothing at all. I played [X] tennis in [Y] Moscow To [Y] some people, human life is [X] nothing December 11, Lectures 7-842

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Adverbial Relation He came [X] to [Y] arrest you. He painted [X] the scenery to [Y] look like trees. In order to [Y] simplify the process, preset forms have [X] to be filled My son being [Y] ill, I could [X] not go to work. December 11, Lectures 7-843

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Restrictive Relation This is [X] not [Y] the case. It is [X] also [Y] probably [Y] not [Y] true. He didn’t go [X] to work either [Y] Neither [Y] does [X] she hope to get married December 11, Lectures 7-844

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Restrictive Relation Highly unlikely, equally good, really strange, a purely ballad form, a sober enough decision December 11, Lectures 7-845

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Appositive Relation Professor Higgins the river Thames Mount Everest George [X1] Gordon [Y1,X1] Byron [X2] Jack the ripper Room 409 The word hibiscus December 11, Lectures 7-846

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Appositive Relation I, the citizen of this country, have the right to vote All languages, even those used by supposedly primitive cultures, have a complex grammar system December 11, Lectures 7-847

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Next lecture Coordinative Syntactic Relations. Auxiliary Syntactic Relations. The hypothesis of two syntactic starts December 11, Lectures 7-848

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