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LRF Training, Belgrade 13 th - 16 th November 2013 © ECMWF Sources of predictability and error in ECMWF long range forecasts Tim Stockdale European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts
LRF Training, Belgrade 13 th - 16 th November 2013 © ECMWF Outline Overview of System 4 Some recent research results
LRF Training, Belgrade 13 th - 16 th November 2013 © ECMWF Seasonal prediction at ECMWF Started in the 1990’s Strategy: fully coupled global GCMs Real-time forecasts since early 1997 Forecasts issued publicly from December 1997 Now using “System 4” Lifetime of systems has been about 5 years each S1S2S4S3 Dec 1997 Mar 2002 Nov 2011 Mar 2007
LRF Training, Belgrade 13 th - 16 th November 2013 © ECMWF System 4 seasonal forecast model IFS (atmosphere) T L 255L91 Cy36r4, 0.7 deg grid for physics (operational in Dec 2010) Full stratosphere, enhanced stratospheric physics Singular vectors from EPS system to perturb atmosphere initial conditions Ocean currents coupled to atmosphere boundary layer calculations NEMO (ocean) Global ocean model, 1x1 resolution, 0.3 meridional near equator NEMOVAR (3D-Var) analyses, newly developed. Coupling Fully coupled, no flux adjustments Sea-ice based on sampling previous five years
LRF Training, Belgrade 13 th - 16 th November 2013 © ECMWF Reduced mean state errors S4 S3 T850U50
LRF Training, Belgrade 13 th - 16 th November 2013 © ECMWF Tropospheric scores Spatially averaged grid-point temporal ACC One month leadFour month lead
LRF Training, Belgrade 13 th - 16 th November 2013 © ECMWF Capturing trends is important. Time-varying CO2 and other factors are important in this. There is a strong link between seasonal prediction and decadal/ multi-decadal climate prediction.
LRF Training, Belgrade 13 th - 16 th November 2013 © ECMWF More recent ENSO forecasts are better.... 1981-19951996-2010
LRF Training, Belgrade 13 th - 16 th November 2013 © ECMWF System 4 configuration Real time forecasts: 51 member ensemble forecast to 7 months SST and atmos. perturbations added to each member 15 member ensemble forecast to 13 months Designed to give an ‘outlook’ for ENSO Only once per quarter (Feb, May, Aug and Nov starts) Back integrations from 1981-2010 (30 years) 15 member ensemble every month 15 members extended to 13 months once per quarter
LRF Training, Belgrade 13 th - 16 th November 2013 © ECMWF How many back integrations? Back integrations dominate total cost of system System 4:5400 back integrations (must be in first year) 612 real-time integrations (per year) Back integrations define model climate Need both climate mean and the pdf, latter needs large sample May prefer to use a “recent” period (30 years? Or less??) System 2 had a 75 member “climate”, S3 had 275, S4 has 450. Sampling is basically OK Back integrations provide information on skill A forecast cannot be used unless we know (or assume) its level of skill Observations have only 1 member, so large ensembles are less helpful than large numbers of cases. Care needed e.g. to estimate skill of 51 member ensemble based on past performance of 15 member ensemble For regions of high signal/noise, System 4 gives adequate skill estimates For regions of low signal/noise (eg <= 0.5), need hundreds of years
LRF Training, Belgrade 13 th - 16 th November 2013 © ECMWF QBO 50hPa 30hPa System 3 System 4
LRF Training, Belgrade 13 th - 16 th November 2013 © ECMWF Problematic ozone analyses
LRF Training, Belgrade 13 th - 16 th November 2013 © ECMWF Stratospheric temperature trend problem. This is due to an erroneous trend in initial conditions of stratospheric water vapour. Stratospheric trends
LRF Training, Belgrade 13 th - 16 th November 2013 © ECMWF Land surface Snow depth limits, 1 st April
LRF Training, Belgrade 13 th - 16 th November 2013 © ECMWF Sea ice
LRF Training, Belgrade 13 th - 16 th November 2013 © ECMWF Tropical storm forecasts
LRF Training, Belgrade 13 th - 16 th November 2013 © ECMWF Model errors are still serious … Models have errors other than mean bias Eg weak wind and SST variability in System 2 Past models underestimated MJO activity (S4 better) Suspected too-weak teleconnections to mid-latitudes Mean state errors interact with model variability Nino 4 region is very sensitive (cold tongue/warm pool boundary) Atlantic variability suppressed if mean state is badly wrong Forecast errors are often larger than they should be With respect to internal variability estimates and (occasionally) other prediction systems Reliability of probabilistic forecasts is often not particularly high (S4 better)
LRF Training, Belgrade 13 th - 16 th November 2013 © ECMWF Recent Research
LRF Training, Belgrade 13 th - 16 th November 2013 © ECMWF S4 extended hindcast set 15 members DJF Europe T2m>upper tercile Re-forecasts from 1 Nov, 1981-2010 Reliability score: 0.902 ROC skill score: 0.06 51 members DJF Europe T2m>upper tercile Re-forecasts from 1 Nov, 1981-2010 Reliability score: 0.981 ROC skill score: 0.22 (Figures from Susanna Corti)
LRF Training, Belgrade 13 th - 16 th November 2013 © ECMWF S4 extended hindcast set 15 members JJA Europe T2m>upper tercile Re-forecasts from 1 May, 1981-2010 Reliability score: 0.987 ROC skill score: 0.38 51 members JJA Europe T2m>upper tercile Re-forecasts from 1 May, 1981-2010 Reliability score: 0.996 ROC skill score: 0.43 (Figures from Susanna Corti)
LRF Training, Belgrade 13 th - 16 th November 2013 © ECMWF S4 ACC DJF Z500 S4 ACC perfect model limit
LRF Training, Belgrade 13 th - 16 th November 2013 © ECMWF Local p-value for perfect model Indistinguishable from perfect Worse than perfect Better than perfect
LRF Training, Belgrade 13 th - 16 th November 2013 © ECMWF Fig. 1. The Arctic Oscillation Index for DJF, as analysed from ERAI (blue) and as predicted by the S4 ensemble mean from the 1st November (red). The S4 ensemble mean is scaled by a factor of 6 to be of comparable amplitude to the observed index. ACC=0.61
LRF Training, Belgrade 13 th - 16 th November 2013 © ECMWF QBO Period and downward penetration match observations Semi-annual oscillation still poorly represented A big reduction in vertical diffusion, and a further tuning of non-orographic GWD, has given a big additional improvement in the QBO compared to S4.
LRF Training, Belgrade 13 th - 16 th November 2013 © ECMWF QBO forecasts S3 S4 New
LRF Training, Belgrade 13 th - 16 th November 2013 © ECMWF NH winter forecasts: vertical diffusion 0.319 0.371
LRF Training, Belgrade 13 th - 16 th November 2013 © ECMWF NH winter forecasts Even with 101 members, ensemble mean signal not always well defined
LRF Training, Belgrade 13 th - 16 th November 2013 © ECMWF Conclusions Models are improving Gradual but continuous improvement in scores Reliability can be high in many situations Forecast systems still have deficiencies Need calibration, and often cannot be trusted at face value Some issues may affect real-time forecasts more than re-forecasts Further improvements lie ahead Research results suggesting that previous estimates of predictability limits might be wrong. Hard work needed to improve models and capture new sources of predictability.
FOCRAII-9, Beijing 10 th April 2013 © ECMWF ECMWF long range forecast systems Dr. Tim Stockdale European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts.
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