Presentation on theme: "Quick Review of Part 1 What signs are their that the African continent is still struggling to develop? Old problems: GNP growth rate in Africa vs rest."— Presentation transcript:
1 Quick Review of Part 1What signs are their that the African continent is still struggling to develop?Old problems:GNP growth rate in Africa vs rest of worldPublic health crisesWater supply & sanitationDrought famine refugeesUrban explosionExploitation of natural resources by outside (oil)
2 New problems: Drug + fake medicine trafficking E-waste dumping CybercrimesPiracyLand grabbing
3 What indications are there that growth has begun in certain sectors? Increased GNP & GDP growth since 2009Rise in FDIBetter integration in globalization (increase container traffic along ports) increased trade with Asia + N. AmericaIncreased role of BRICS in African developmentUrban growth source of modernizationSocial recomposition – rise of middle classEntrepreneurs with world ranking
5 Boom of African Mobile Telephone Industry Cell Phone subscriptionsMobile subscriptions in Africa rose from 54m to almost 350m between 2003 and 2008, the quickest growth in the world.Source: The Guardian Oct, 2009Between 2007 and 2012, the number of mobile phone subscribers in Subsaharan Africa increased by 18% a yearSource: Jeune Afrique 12/11/201330Land Lines25Internauts2015
6 Today, 17 out of 19 million Kenyans have a M-Pesa account Today, 17 out of 19 million Kenyans have a M-Pesa account. (…) According to the Gallup Institute, 66% of money transfers carried out in Kenya were done by mobile phone (2% by banks) and the continent is leader in this type of transaction.Source: Le Monde, 18/08/2013Source: VodafoneVideo: M-Pesa Ad
7 Actors of mobile phone market in Africa CompanyCountry# subscribersPresence in Africa (# of countries)Revenue 2008 (M $)MTNSouth Africa64.3 M1512,088Zain (Celltell)Kuweit41 M4,169Vodacom34 M56841VofafoneUK21.1 M21609France TelecomFrance17 M142330MillicomLuxembourg90.4 M7711Portugal TelecomPortugal60.3 M41661MoovThe United Emirates15 MNCVivendi/Morocco TelecomFrance/Morocco10.1 M202Source: Union Internationale des Télécommunications
8 Projected African Undersea Cables for 2012 and 2014 Sources:
10 "On l'aura compris, les femmes africaines n'ont pas la partie facile "On l'aura compris, les femmes africaines n'ont pas la partie facile. Mais cette difficulté est aussi ce qui les rend fortes. La formidable puissance économique et sociale des femmes africaines distingue en effet ce continent du reste du monde. Leur présence massive dans le secteur informel et la production de biens alimentaires font d'elles des agents économiques de premier plan, que l'émergence d'une société civile conduit de plus en plus à s'organiser. C'est désormais surtout avec les réseaux de femmes, coopératives de production, syndicats agricoles, associations de quartiers, que traitent les ONG internationales".Source: Sylvie Brunel (Sciences humaines, 03/03/2012)Creating a climate of success for women in Africa is not simply smart economics, it is integral to the continent’s development effectiveness, referenced by a direct correlation between women’s empowerment, national GDP growth, private sector growth, environmental sustainability and improved health outcomes. The implications for human development are vast, but remain unharnessed. Instead, marginalization of women as economic actors is compromising a continent poised for a massive economic boom.Women’s disempowerment is particularly glaring in Africa’s agricultural sector. Women are Africa’s principal food producers: according to the UN Food and Agriculture Organization, they make up 70 percent of the agricultural labor force and are responsible for 80 percent of food production and 60 to 90 percent of marketing, in addition to grueling household responsibilities.
11 Why African women are the drivers of development Women are a formidable economic force across emerging markets in Africa, yet their role in economic production remains largely unrecognized. Their continued inability to access and control economic and social capital assets and resources has been a central factor in perpetuating Africa’s poverty trap and keeping the economic performance of many African states below their potential.“We need to ensure that the energy, skills, strength, values and wisdom of women become an integral part of the remodeled economic infrastructures now being developed by global leaders. Empowering and investing in women is part of a global solution for us all, now and in the future.”-Graça Machel, African Elder, Activist and Former First Lady of Mozambique and South Africa
12 2008: creation of the Tanzania Women’s Bank (TWB) December 9, 2006 : Tontine in the district of Niamakoro, Bamako, Mali.Networks of women generally turn to the voluntary system of group savings, the tontine, to start businesses.The secretary writes down the amount contributed by each of the participants.Source:
13 Video: Taking Root - The vision of Wangari Waathai 0 – 6’48 In Rwanda, women occupy 51 deputy seats out of 80, i.e. 64% since the legislative elections in 2013Wangari Waathai, prix Nobel de la paix 2004 (1° femme africaine lauréate)19/07/2011Video: Taking Root - The vision of Wangari Waathai 0 – 6’48
14 E- Democratic Aspirations Démo ou démo restreintes : Bénin, Mali, Sao Tome, Sénégal, TanzanieNelles démo : Burundi, Mozambiqueémergence de contre-pouvoirs sont observables au Bénin, à Maurice, Mauritanie, Mozambique, Tanzanie une certaine normalisation en cours au Sierra Leone et Libéria Cameroun Paul Biya en 2011, Idriss Deby au Tchad ou des présidences héréditaires (bongo au Gabon).Magazine Carto, juillet-août 2010
15 Link: Mo Ibrahim Foundation “Africa is rich. It doesn’t need help. What it needs is more transparency.”Mo IbrahimIbrahim Prize: Annual Prize given to the African country with the highest score /100Based on 4 indicators:Safety & Rule of LawParticipation & Human RightsSustainable Economic OpportunityHuman Development.Link: Mo Ibrahim Foundation
16 III- Challenges to Meet A- The sheer numbersAfrican Population estimation (according to UN data) 1700 ≈ 100 million, i.e. 17% world population 1900 ≈ 100 million, i.e. 6% world population 2010 ≈ 1 billion, i.e. 14% world population 2050 ≈ 2 billion, i.e. 22% world population And controversial long-term estimates of 3.6 billion in 2100 out of 10 billion total, or 1/3 of the world population
18 The Specter of overpopulation - Fear of the numbers Rwanda, in Equerre BlogspotThe Specter of overpopulation- Fear of the numbers- Fear of exhaustion of natural resources- Fear of migratory flows⇒ neo-malthusian perspective
19 B- Challenges of education/ a youthful population % of population under 15Literacy Rate% GDP on education
20 Major gaps between countries Population under 15 years of age41% of sub-Saharan African inhabitants31% in North AfricaEducation major objective but with huge gapsMore than 80% children receive primary education in GabonOnly 30% in NigerSub-Saharan Africa 1/16 students go abroad for studiesBRAIN DRAIN inhibits development
23 Infrastructure lacking in all areas Meeting the needs of ever increasing needs for urban planning and developmentSafe drinking waterSewage systemsTransport systemsElectricityElectrical power outages & dirt roads common due to lack of fundingVideo: TED Talk: “How I Harnessed the Wind” by William Kamkwamba 4’12
24 TransportationMain roadsRailroadsPortsWhich ports are the main ones in subsaharan Africa? What do you notice about the road and rail infrastructure?
26 E- The “Curse of natural resources” Challenge ITIE : Initiative for the transparency in the extractive industries 2002Coalition composed of governments, businesses, civil society groups, investors and international organizations
27 EITI: Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative Source:Video: EITI - Seeing results from natural resources 2013
29 African Legal Support Facility Creation by the African Development Bank (ADB) in 2008.Objective: provide assistance to governments in the drafting of contractsFinancing of teams of international experts in association with local executives in order to train them
30 Recent examples of renegotiations Where has the government increased taxes for foreign extraction companies?Where has the government gained shares in the company?In which countries have contracts been renegotiated?Where have local investors gained shares in the business?Times are changing for Areva. Practically automatic up until the mid 2000’s, the renewal of contracts now goes through a proper negotiation process. And right from the start Mr. Issoufou warned that they would take place on an equal partner basis.With the return of democracy in Niamey, they are also taking place under the watchful eye and pressure of the public, elites and NGO watchdog groups such as Oxfam France and the Nigerian network of organizations for transparency and budgetary analysis (ROTAB). Source: Jean-Michel Bezat, ”Uranium : pourquoi Areva peine à renouveler ses contrats au Niger”, Le Monde.fr |
32 Where are growth rates rising? Where are they falling?Do you recognize any regional or product related patterns?For the 2 countries in red, can you explain their dramatic downturn in growth?
33 Figure 2: Evolution of the % of population living below the poverty threshold ($1.25 a day) between 1998 and 2008Figure 1: Evolution of GDP per capita,
34 Regional Economic Dynamics Regional GroupsShadow ZonesEconomic DynamismRegional Economic DynamicsEconomic motor of Subsaharan AfricaThe LocomotivesOther Subsaharan African StatesOutside of State control
35 Natural Resource Management Mineral Resourcs:Diamonds, Cobalt, Copper, Chrome, Pewter, Iron, Manganese, Nickel, Gold, Platinum, Lead, Zinc, Bauxite,Energy Resources:Petroleum, Natural Gas, Uranium, CoalWhere is foreign investment in mining concentrated? What about foreign investment in petroleum?Which areas are in conflict?Which are politically unstable?Which are politically stable?
36 African regional groups with economic aims, September 2010
37 “In Western countries, we only hear about Darfour, Zimbabwe, Congo, Somalia, as if there were only those countries. There are fifty-three countries on the continent, and many of them are doing very well….” Mo Ibrahim while conferring the Mo Ibraham Prize in 2008, quoted in Courrier international, 7 January 2010
41 Comparison of Demographic growth between China, Europe and Africa Source: United Nations
42 Manioc Harvest, unspecified location, in Encyclopédie Larousse, 2004 Young medecinemerchant in a street inYaoundé in « journal du Cameroun »
43 Ipola-Foulla, Burkina-Faso, 2005 (Syfia photo) « (…)Le paysan africain, qui, depuis des millénaires, vit avec les saisons, dont l’idéalde vie est d’être en harmonie avec la nature, ne connaît que l’éternel recommencementdu temps rythmé par la répétition sans fin des mêmes gestes et des mêmes paroles.(…)l’homme reste immobile au milieu d’un ordre immuable ou tout semble écritd’avance » Speech by Président Sarkozy, pronounced in Dakar July 26, 2007,written by Henri Gaino
44 Video: Dominion FarmsEvaluate the foreign investment development project by Dominion Farms in light of Sarkozy’s speech in Dakar 7 years ago.