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Quick Review of Part 1 What signs are their that the African continent is still struggling to develop? Old problems: GNP growth rate in Africa vs rest.

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Presentation on theme: "Quick Review of Part 1 What signs are their that the African continent is still struggling to develop? Old problems: GNP growth rate in Africa vs rest."— Presentation transcript:

1 Quick Review of Part 1 What signs are their that the African continent is still struggling to develop? Old problems: GNP growth rate in Africa vs rest of world Public health crises Water supply & sanitation Drought famine refugees Urban explosion Exploitation of natural resources by outside (oil)

2 New problems: Drug + fake medicine trafficking E-waste dumping
Cybercrimes Piracy Land grabbing

3 What indications are there that growth has begun in certain sectors?
Increased GNP & GDP growth since 2009 Rise in FDI Better integration in globalization (increase container traffic along ports) increased trade with Asia + N. America Increased role of BRICS in African development Urban growth source of modernization Social recomposition – rise of middle class Entrepreneurs with world ranking

4 Mobile Phones

5 Boom of African Mobile Telephone Industry
Cell Phone subscriptions Mobile subscriptions in Africa rose from 54m to almost 350m between 2003 and 2008, the quickest growth in the world. Source: The Guardian Oct, 2009 Between 2007 and 2012, the number of mobile phone subscribers in Subsaharan Africa increased by 18% a year Source: Jeune Afrique 12/11/2013 30 Land Lines 25 Internauts 20 15

6 Today, 17 out of 19 million Kenyans have a M-Pesa account
Today, 17 out of 19 million Kenyans have a M-Pesa account. (…) According to the Gallup Institute, 66% of money transfers carried out in Kenya were done by mobile phone (2% by banks) and the continent is leader in this type of transaction. Source: Le Monde, 18/08/2013 Source: Vodafone Video: M-Pesa Ad

7 Actors of mobile phone market in Africa
Company Country # subscribers Presence in Africa (# of countries) Revenue 2008 (M $) MTN South Africa 64.3 M 15 12,088 Zain (Celltell) Kuweit 41 M 4,169 Vodacom 34 M 5 6841 Vofafone UK 21.1 M 2 1609 France Telecom France 17 M 14 2330 Millicom Luxembourg 90.4 M 7 711 Portugal Telecom Portugal 60.3 M 4 1661 Moov The United Emirates 15 M NC Vivendi/Morocco Telecom France/Morocco 10.1 M 202 Source: Union Internationale des Télécommunications

8 Projected African Undersea Cables for 2012 and 2014

9 Women

10 "On l'aura compris, les femmes africaines n'ont pas la partie facile
"On l'aura compris, les femmes africaines n'ont pas la partie facile. Mais cette difficulté est aussi ce qui les rend fortes. La formidable puissance économique et sociale des femmes africaines distingue en effet ce continent du reste du monde. Leur présence massive dans le secteur informel et la production de biens alimentaires font d'elles des agents économiques de premier plan, que l'émergence d'une société civile conduit de plus en plus à s'organiser. C'est désormais surtout avec les réseaux de femmes, coopératives de production, syndicats agricoles, associations de quartiers, que traitent les ONG internationales". Source: Sylvie Brunel (Sciences humaines, 03/03/2012) Creating a climate of success for women in Africa is not simply smart economics, it is integral to the continent’s development effectiveness, referenced by a direct correlation between women’s empowerment, national GDP growth, private sector growth, environmental sustainability and improved health outcomes. The implications for human development are vast, but remain unharnessed. Instead, marginalization of women as economic actors is compromising a continent poised for a massive economic boom. Women’s disempowerment is particularly glaring in Africa’s agricultural sector. Women are Africa’s principal food producers: according to the UN Food and Agriculture Organization, they make up 70 percent of the agricultural labor force and are responsible for 80 percent of food production and 60 to 90 percent of marketing, in addition to grueling household responsibilities.

11 Why African women are the drivers of development
Women are a formidable economic force across emerging markets in Africa, yet their role in economic production remains largely unrecognized. Their continued inability to access and control economic and social capital assets and resources has been a central factor in perpetuating Africa’s poverty trap and keeping the economic performance of many African states below their potential. “We need to ensure that the energy, skills, strength, values and wisdom of women become an integral part of the remodeled economic infrastructures now being developed by global leaders. Empowering and investing in women is part of a global solution for us all, now and in the future.” -Graça Machel, African Elder, Activist and Former First Lady of Mozambique and South Africa

12 2008: creation of the Tanzania Women’s Bank (TWB)
December 9, 2006 : Tontine in the district of Niamakoro, Bamako, Mali. Networks of women generally turn to the voluntary system of group savings, the tontine, to start businesses. The secretary writes down the amount contributed by each of the participants. Source:

13 Video: Taking Root - The vision of Wangari Waathai 0 – 6’48
In Rwanda, women occupy 51 deputy seats out of 80, i.e. 64% since the legislative elections in 2013 Wangari Waathai, prix Nobel de la paix 2004 (1° femme africaine lauréate) 19/07/2011 Video: Taking Root - The vision of Wangari Waathai 0 – 6’48

14 E- Democratic Aspirations
Démo ou démo restreintes : Bénin, Mali, Sao Tome, Sénégal, Tanzanie Nelles démo : Burundi, Mozambique émergence de contre-pouvoirs sont observables au Bénin, à Maurice, Mauritanie, Mozambique, Tanzanie une certaine normalisation en cours au Sierra Leone et Libéria Cameroun Paul Biya en 2011, Idriss Deby au Tchad ou des présidences héréditaires (bongo au Gabon). Magazine Carto, juillet-août 2010

15 Link: Mo Ibrahim Foundation
“Africa is rich. It doesn’t need help. What it needs is more transparency.” Mo Ibrahim Ibrahim Prize: Annual Prize given to the African country with the highest score /100 Based on 4 indicators: Safety & Rule of Law Participation & Human Rights Sustainable Economic Opportunity Human Development. Link: Mo Ibrahim Foundation

16 III- Challenges to Meet
A- The sheer numbers African Population estimation (according to UN data) 1700 ≈ 100 million, i.e. 17% world population 1900 ≈ 100 million, i.e. 6% world population 2010 ≈ 1 billion, i.e. 14% world population 2050 ≈ 2 billion, i.e. 22% world population And controversial long-term estimates of 3.6 billion in 2100 out of 10 billion total, or 1/3 of the world population


18 The Specter of overpopulation - Fear of the numbers
Rwanda, in Equerre Blogspot The Specter of overpopulation - Fear of the numbers - Fear of exhaustion of natural resources - Fear of migratory flows ⇒ neo-malthusian perspective

19 B- Challenges of education/ a youthful population
% of population under 15 Literacy Rate % GDP on education

20 Major gaps between countries
Population under 15 years of age 41% of sub-Saharan African inhabitants 31% in North Africa Education major objective but with huge gaps More than 80% children receive primary education in Gabon Only 30% in Niger Sub-Saharan Africa 1/16 students go abroad for studies BRAIN DRAIN inhibits development

21 C- The Food Challenge

22 D- The Challenge of Infrastructures

23 Infrastructure lacking in all areas
Meeting the needs of ever increasing needs for urban planning and development Safe drinking water Sewage systems Transport systems Electricity Electrical power outages & dirt roads common due to lack of funding Video: TED Talk: “How I Harnessed the Wind” by William Kamkwamba 4’12

24 Transportation Main roads Railroads Ports Which ports are the main ones in subsaharan Africa? What do you notice about the road and rail infrastructure?

25 African Regional Organizations 2006

26 E- The “Curse of natural resources” Challenge
ITIE : Initiative for the transparency in the extractive industries 2002 Coalition composed of governments, businesses, civil society groups, investors and international organizations

27 EITI: Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative
Source: Video: EITI - Seeing results from natural resources 2013


29 African Legal Support Facility
Creation by the African Development Bank (ADB) in 2008. Objective: provide assistance to governments in the drafting of contracts Financing of teams of international experts in association with local executives in order to train them

30 Recent examples of renegotiations
Where has the government increased taxes for foreign extraction companies? Where has the government gained shares in the company? In which countries have contracts been renegotiated? Where have local investors gained shares in the business? Times are changing for Areva. Practically automatic up until the mid 2000’s, the renewal of contracts now goes through a proper negotiation process. And right from the start Mr. Issoufou warned that they would take place on an equal partner basis. With the return of democracy in Niamey, they are also taking place under the watchful eye and pressure of the public, elites and NGO watchdog groups such as Oxfam France and the Nigerian network of organizations for transparency and budgetary analysis (ROTAB).  Source: Jean-Michel Bezat, ”Uranium : pourquoi Areva peine à renouveler ses contrats au Niger”, Le | 


32 Where are growth rates rising?
Where are they falling? Do you recognize any regional or product related patterns? For the 2 countries in red, can you explain their dramatic downturn in growth?

33 Figure 2: Evolution of the % of population living below the poverty threshold ($1.25 a day) between 1998 and 2008 Figure 1: Evolution of GDP per capita,

34 Regional Economic Dynamics
Regional Groups Shadow Zones Economic Dynamism Regional Economic Dynamics Economic motor of Subsaharan Africa The Locomotives Other Subsaharan African States Outside of State control

35 Natural Resource Management
Mineral Resourcs: Diamonds, Cobalt, Copper, Chrome, Pewter, Iron, Manganese, Nickel, Gold, Platinum, Lead, Zinc, Bauxite, Energy Resources: Petroleum, Natural Gas, Uranium, Coal Where is foreign investment in mining concentrated? What about foreign investment in petroleum? Which areas are in conflict? Which are politically unstable? Which are politically stable?

36 African regional groups with economic aims, September 2010

37 “In Western countries, we only hear about Darfour, Zimbabwe, Congo, Somalia, as if there were only those countries. There are fifty-three countries on the continent, and many of them are doing very well….”   Mo Ibrahim while conferring the Mo Ibraham Prize in 2008, quoted in Courrier international, 7 January 2010


39 Urban Sprawl The growth of Ouagadougou from 1975 to1993, in Ouagadougou et ses enjeux, Laval University dissertation Québec, Reine Bohbot, 2008

40 View of Luanda, Angola

41 Comparison of Demographic growth between China, Europe and Africa Source: United Nations

42 Manioc Harvest, unspecified location, in Encyclopédie Larousse, 2004
Young medecine merchant in a street in Yaoundé in « journal du Cameroun »

43 Ipola-Foulla, Burkina-Faso, 2005 (Syfia photo)
« (…)Le paysan africain, qui, depuis des millénaires, vit avec les saisons, dont l’idéal de vie est d’être en harmonie avec la nature, ne connaît que l’éternel recommencement du temps rythmé par la répétition sans fin des mêmes gestes et des mêmes paroles. (…)l’homme reste immobile au milieu d’un ordre immuable ou tout semble écrit d’avance » Speech by Président Sarkozy, pronounced in Dakar July 26, 2007, written by Henri Gaino

44 Video: Dominion Farms Evaluate the foreign investment development project by Dominion Farms in light of Sarkozy’s speech in Dakar 7 years ago.

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