Presentation on theme: "PAST EXPERIENCES, CURRENT STATUS AND PLANS FOR THE FRUIT FLY IPM FOR SMALLHOLDER VEGETABLE AND FRUIT GROWERS IN VIETNAM Nguyen Van Hoa (1), Le Quoc Dien."— Presentation transcript:
PAST EXPERIENCES, CURRENT STATUS AND PLANS FOR THE FRUIT FLY IPM FOR SMALLHOLDER VEGETABLE AND FRUIT GROWERS IN VIETNAM Nguyen Van Hoa (1), Le Quoc Dien (1), Ho Van Chien(2), Nguyen Minh Chau(1) and Viyaysegaran S. (3) (1) : Southern Horticultural Research Institute (SOFRI), Vietnam (2) : Southern Plant Protection Center (SPPC), Vietnam (3) : Griffith University, Australia
Northern highland Red River Delta Northern of Central Southern of Central Coastal Western highland South-East region Mekong Delta
Location Area (1000 ha)Yield (tạ/ha) Production (1000 ton) 199920051999200519992005 Whole Coutry459.6635.11.261.5185792,29640,3 1Red River Delta126.7158.61.571.7991988,92852,8 2Northern highland60.791.11.0511.106637,81008 3Northern of Central52.768.50.8120.978427,8670,2 4 Southern of Central Coastal30.9441.09140,1336,7616,4 5Western highland25.1491.775201,7445,6988,2 6South-East region64.259.60.942129,5604,9772,1 7Mekong Delta99.3164.31.36166,31350,52732,6 Table 1. Area, yield and production of Vegetable in different regions of Vietnam
Fruiting Vegetable in the South, VietNam (Estimated - 2010) Region Southern of Central Coastal Western highland South East region Mekong RegionTotal Area (ha) 12.30817.6339.52050.270,089.731,0 Productivity (100kg/ha) 194,3226,4140,5210,8204,2 Production (ton) 239.202,5399.190,5133.725,61.059.915,61.832.034,2
No.LocationArea in the year of 2005 (1000 ha) Area estimated in 2010 (1000 ha) Production estimated in 2010 ( 1000ton) 1.Red River Delta79.290 1160 2.Northern highland178.4230 1.440 3.Northern of Central region58.580 720 4.Southern of Central Coastal region 30.238 300 5.Western highland23.132 300 6.South-East region128.4150 1755 7.Mekong Delta region269.3380 4325 Total767.11.00010.000 Table 2: Fruit production area in Vietnam (MARD 2007)
Fruit tree Area (x1000 ha)Production (x1000 tonne) 2004200520042005 Longan * 121.1120.3606.4628.8 Orange, lemon, mandarin 82.787.2540.5606.4 Pomelo * 28.630.4209.3242.2 Banana* 102.2103.41,329.41,354.3 Lychee, Rambutan* 110.2113.7507.5379.6 Mango 77.578.7337.7380.9 Pineapple* 44.347.4414.9472.7 Durian 20.2146.0- Dragon fruit** 8.5 13.5 133.3- Grape2.0 25.026.4 Table 4: Area and production of major fruit trees in Vietnam 2004 and 2005 (Source: MARD 2006) *Export fruit ** Number one fruit export
Table 4: Vietnam major fruit and vegetables export value YearValue (1000 USD) Number of country China (1000 USD) 2000196,5833120,351 2001329,90042142,801 2002219,69842121,529 2003182,5543667,068 2004178,8003920,638 2005235,0003635,000 2006259,0824024,60 2007350,00040 2008407,00045 2008438,00050
Upto March 1999, only 2 species were recorded: Bactrocera dorsalis and Bactrocera cucurbitae From March 1999 to August 2000, 22 species were recorded From August 2000 to Nov. 2001, 8 species more were recorded. A total of 24 Bactrocera and 2 Dacus species of fruit flies have so far been identified from Vietnam. The nine pest species of major economic importance in Vietnam are: Bactrocera (Bactrocera) carambolae, B. correcta, B. cucurbitae, B. dorsalis,, B. tau, B. verbascifoliae and B. zonata.
18 Species present in the South, infected on 19 fruit crops, 14 vegetable crops, one is cashew nut and 8 wild plant species. In the North: 3 species Bactrocera correcta, Bactrocera cucurbitae, Bactrocera dorsalis present in red river delta and hilly nearby, 2 species Bactrocera pyrifoliae and Bactrocera tau present in the moutain area. In the South: 2 specie Bactrocera correcta and Bactrocera cucurbitae were more in the Mekong delta than in the Southeast area. In constract, Bactrocera dorsalis was more in the Southeast than the Mekong delta.
26 Fruit crops 1. Guava 2. Wax apple 3. Mango 4. Chinese apple 5. Longan 6. Babados cherry 7. Sour sop 8. Rambutan 9. Dragon fruit 10. Banana 11. Papaya 12. Mandarin 13. Sapodilla 14. Pummelo 15. Star fruit 16. Avocado 17. Sweet orange 18. Rose apple 19. Star apple
16 Vegetable crops 1. Bitter gourd 2. Tomato 3. Gourd 4. Squash 5. Lufa 6. Casaba melon 7. Cucumber 8. Pumpkin 9. Bitter cucumber 10. Pyriform melon 11. chayote 12. Red chili 13. Egg plant 14. Chinese pea
Crops Percentage of infection (%) 20082009 678910111212345 DF3000306000132630 Ma203---710233346-- SA------092636-- Gu10 0 739310040 938033 BC2646807033 2033 937340 BG8334------20-- Note: DF: Dragon Fruit; Ma: Mango; SA: Star apple; Gu: Guava; BC: Barbados cherry and BG: Bitter gourd Infecting peak of fruit fly on some crops
Different control measures being implemented by smallholder farmers -Using of systemic insecticides: This control measure had been applied previously, but this lead to chemical residue, health and environmental problems, it is no more advice for controlling of fruit fly and the farmers also recognize that since its less effective. - Bagging of fruit at suitable stage: many fruits and fruiting vegetable are being controlled by using this technique such as mango, guava, star fruit, star apple, bitter gourd, etc.
- Trapping with Methyl Eugenol (allyl-3,4- dimethyoxybenzene): Vizubon D and Flykil 95 EC: This technique has been widely used by farmers, however, the effectiveness is less, event sometime it harmed to their crops since the trap can kill male but more females will accompany with male and cause more damage to their fruits. Now we advice farmer do not use it alone but combine with protein bait in large scale.
- Cleaning of the falling fruits: This technique is a MUST in the fruit fly control strategy, all the falling fruit should be collected and buried deep under soil. However, the farmers still not keen to do this job on their orchards since labor consumption.
Project implemented FAO: 1999 – 2000: Survey for FF species and host range FAO: 2000 – 2002: continued the Survey for FF species and host range ACIAR: 2003 – 2008: continued the Survey for FF species and host range, Protein bait production, raring of Bactrocera dorsalis and B. correcta colonies for host range and postharvest testing; large scale application, training. ACIAR: Expending: 2008 – 2009: Extending the project to new area and expanding of the large scale application of SOFRI Protein (South) and Ento – Pro (North)
- Protein bait (SOFRI Protein 10 DD) use: With the help of expert from Griffith University, SOFRI has developed the protein bait from the beer waste, named SOFRI Protein 10 DD. Now it has been widely used in the South of Vietnam, especially in the large scale monoculture of fruit and fruiting vegetable crops. Content of analysisProtein bait Total protein content (%) 9.75 NH4 + (%) 80.35 pH 4.29 Total solids (%) 55.5 Specific gravity 0.978
The effects of SOFRI Protein in controlling of Fruit Fly on Sapodilla from 2 August to 15 October, 2006 Date Percentage of fruit infected (%) Protein bait Control 27/8/2006 03/9/2006 10/9/2006 17/9/2006 24/9/2006 50 30 15 10 4 67 58 62 60 47 SAPODILLA (SOFRI PROTEIN: 300 ha and control 10 ha)
The effects of SOFRI Protein in controlling of Fruit Fly on bitter gourd from 10 April to 14 June, 2006 (10 ha) BITTER GOURD (10HA) Treatment % of infection per week 12345Average T1 – Control0096227.4 T2 –Protein001282.2
Treatment % of infection per week Before applied First spray Second spray Third spray Fouth Applied N1 – Protein53.042.023.07.04.0 N2 – Control49.053.0365772 The effects of SOFRI Protein in controlling of Fruit Fly on Barbados cherry from 18 August to 18 sep, 2007. BARBADOS CHERRY (150 ha and control 10 ha)
RegionCrop testedArea tested (ha) Effectiveness In the South -Mango -Dragon Fruit -Star apple -Guava -Bitter gourd -Vegetable Legume 10 05 10 Reduced percentage of damage to 5- 7% at harvesting time In the North -Peach -Guava 10 05 Reduced percentage of damage to 5- 7% at harvesting time SOFRI Protein large scale application (2008-2009)
Without SOFRI Protein After using SOFRI Protein Average yield (tonnes) per ha/year 20 (harvested immature) 25 (harvested ripe) Average market price per kg (VND) 1.5003.500 Average income per hectare (VND) 30.000.00070.000.000 The introduction of SOFRI protein bait sprays has resulted in a 2-fold increase in income for farmers (VN dong). COST – BENEFIT RATIOS WHEN APPLY PROTEIN BAIT COMPARISON WITH CONVETIONAL CONTROL
NoCropsInfection periodInfected/teste d fruits 1Dragon fruit20 days after pollination2/100 2Mango60 days after pollination3/100 3Star apple90 days after pollination1/100 4Guava60 days after pollination4/100 5Barbados cherry After fruit setting10/200 6Vegetable legume After fruit setting8/100 7Bitter gourdAfter fruit setting10/100 Determination of application time for some major fruit and fruiting vegetable crops.
Protein bait improvement for more attractive to FF Content of analysisProtein bait Total protein content (%)13.9 NH4 + (%)0.13 RH (%)65.1 Total solids (%)34.49 Specific gravity1.16 Insect Pest observed Pest severity score Protein bait + non- parrafinic oil Insecticide cover sprayed Citrus leaf miner 2.521.3 Citrus psylla08.1 Aphids8.79.8 Mealy bugs6.59.5 Soft scales8.416.4 Thrips012.1 Fruit flies1902298 Increase the Total protein content in Protein bait Comparison of the incidence of fruit flies and other major insect pests in citrus orchard treated with protein bait and non-parrafinic oil compared with insecticide cover sprays. My Luong village, Tien Giang province, 2008.
Dr. Viyaj and Cambodian delegate came to Vietnam for expanding use of Protein bait to Cambodia
Training of trainers, PPPD staff and farmers Training Workshop No. 1: Morphology, Taxonomy and Management of Fruit Flies, 3-7 June 2002, SOFRI, Long Dinh, Vietnam: 27 participants from different institutions and again 66 staff from provinces have been trained
Farmers training YearNumber of courseNo Participants 2006 -200733495 2008 – 2009872541
Mekong Delta Horticultural Clinic, SOFRI Leaflet for Fruit Fly control on Plant Clinic activities
Conventional insecticide spray Protein bait spray 2 SPRAYING METHODs COMPERISON The training combined with the demonstration of the Protein Bait use
EXTENSION MATERIALS FOR FRUIT FLY CONTROL - Protocol for Protein bait use - Protein bait product - Bags (Plastic, water resistant paper, paper) - Leaflets, VCD on FF management - Mineral oil
Proposed Future plans for Fruit fly IPM programme (4-5 years program) 1. Production of Protein bait - At the present, we can product maximum 50.000 litters of protein bait per year, however this amount is not sufficient to use in the area of fruit and fruiting vegetable crops. - We plan to increase the protein bait volume upto 75.000 litters per year, so 2 tanks of 1.000 litters need to be invested for this purpose (increase 25.000 litters).
Proposed Future plans for Fruit fly IPM programme (cont.) 2. Study to improve the protein bait product. -For longer last on field conditions, the study need to be conducted to improve the solid status of the protein when apply on fruit and vegetable leaves. - In our study, the Tyrosine amino acid seems to be very attractive to fruit fly and stimulate the activities of both male and female flies. So the protein contain more tyrosine need to be study to improve protein bait product.
Proposed Future plans for Fruit fly IPM programme (cont.) 3. IPM programme on Fruit and Vegetable in the South, Vietnam The IPM with the use of different control measures must be used in the South of Viet Nam (at least 10 provinces: Longan, Tiengiang, Bentre, Vinhlong, Dongthap, Cantho, Haugiang, Soctrang, Travinh and Hochiminh city). Protein bait and Oil Protein bait and conventional culture Protein bait and conventional culture Protein bait and conventional culture Protein bait and Oil Protein bait and oil 1 km Commune ACommune BCommune C
Proposed Future plans for Fruit fly IPM programme (cont.) 4. Training for use of Protein baits and IPM programme - TOT: Training for at least 3 staff from each province (30 participant from 10 provinces) - Farmers training:
- Farmers training model Sub Plant Protection Department Determination of fruit fly progeny in each province Role of the exporter/businessmen Flowering time predict Large scale application Group 1Group 2 Group 3 Cleaning of the orchards SOFRI, SPPC Plant Protection Deparment Training Associations