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Presentation on theme: "SATURATED HIDROCARBONS ALKANE"— Presentation transcript:


2 Alkane = paraffin = saturated hidrocarbons = hydrocarbons with only single covalent bonds between the carbon atoms

3 Definition Acyclic branched or unbranched hydrocarbons having the general formula CnH2n+2 , and therefore consisting entirely of hydrogen atoms and saturated carbon atoms. IUPAC Gold Book

4 Sifat Sukar bereaksi C1 – C4 pada tekanan & suhu normal fase gas
C5 – C17 pada tekanan & suhu normal fase cair PC18 pada tekanan & suhu normal fase padat Mudah larut pada pelarut non polar Berat jenis naik dengan penambahan atom C Pada alkana rantai lurus  semakin panjang rantai maka titik didih & titik leleh semakin tinggi

5 Carbon Bonding in Alkane
Each carbon atom must have 4 bonds (either C–H or C–C bonds), and each hydrogen atom must be joined to a carbon atom (H–C bonds).

6 Straight-chain alkanes are sometimes indicated by the prefix n- (for normal)

7 Molecular Formula CnH2n+2
Name Molecular Formula CnH2n+2 Structural Formula Methane CH4 Ethane C2H6 CH3–CH3 Propane C3H8 CH3–CH2–CH3 Butane C4H10 CH3–CH2–CH2–CH3 Pentane C5H12 CH3–CH2–CH2–CH2–CH3 Hexane C6H14 CH3–CH2–CH2–CH2–CH2–CH3 Heptane C7H16 CH3–CH2–CH2–CH2–CH2–CH2–CH3 Octane C8H18 CH3–CH2–CH2–CH2–CH2–CH2–CH2–CH3 Nonane C9H20 CH3–CH2–CH2–CH2–CH2–CH2–CH2–CH2–CH3 Decane C10H22 CH3–CH2–CH2–CH2–CH2–CH2–CH2–CH2–CH2–CH3

8 Isomerism Alkanes with more than three carbon atoms can be arranged in a multiple number of ways, forming different structural isomers. Isomers are compounds that have the same molecular formula but different structural formulas. College Chemistry_ch.21.8_p.529


10 Practice 1 : Write structural formulas and
condensed structural formulas of : Pentane C5H12 Hexane C6H14

11 Pentane

12 Hexane

13 Alkyl Number of carbons Molecule name 1 methyl 2 ethyl 3 propyl
4 butyl 5 pentyl/amyl 6 hexyl 7 heptyl 8 octyl 9 nonyl 10 decyl 11 undecyl 12 dodecyl

14 sec-Butyl Isopropyl Isobutyl tert-Butyl

15 IUPAC Nomenclature : Basic Principles (1)
Select the longest continuous chain of carbon atoms as the parent compound, and consider all alkyl groups attached to it as side chains that have replaced hydrogen atoms of the parents hydrocarbon. The name of the alkane consists of the name of the parent compound prefixed by the names of the side-chain alkyl groups attached to it.

16 IUPAC Nomenclature : Basic Principles (2)
Number the carbon atoms in the parent carbon chain starting from the end closest to the first carbon atom that has an alkyl or other group substitued for a hydrogen atom.

17 IUPAC Nomenclature : Basic Principles (3)
Name each side-chain alkyl group and designate its position on the parent carbon chain by a number (for example, 2-methyl means a methyl group attached to carbon number 2).

18 IUPAC Nomenclature : Basic Principles (4)
When the same alkyl-group side chain occurs more than once, indicate this by a prefix (di-, tri-, tetra-, and si forth) written in front of the alkyl-group name (for example, dimethyl indicates two methyl groups). The numbers indicating the positions of these alkyl groups are separated by a comma and followed by a hypen and are placed in front of the name (for example, 2,3-dimethyl).

19 IUPAC Nomenclature : Basic Principles (5)
When several different alkyl groups are attached to the parent compound, list them in alphabetical order; for example, ethyl before methyl in 3-ethyl-4-methyloctane. College Chemistry_ch.21.9_p.533

20 Practice 2 : The following names are incorrect. Tell why the name is wrong and gave the correct name. 3-methylbutane 2-ethylbutane 2-dimethylpentane 3-methyl-5-ethyloctane 3,5,5-triethylhexane

21 3-methylbutane CH3 – CH2 – CH – CH3 CH3 2-methylbutane

22 2-ethylbutane CH3 – CH2 – CH – CH3 CH2 CH3 3-methylpentane

23 2-dimethylpentane CH3 CH3 – CH – CH – CH2 – CH3 2,2-dimethylpentane

24 3-methyl-5-ethyloctane
CH3 – CH2 – CH – CH2 – CH – CH2 – CH2 – CH3 CH3 CH2 CH3 5-ethyl-3-methyloctane

25 CH3 – CH2 – CH – CH2 – C – CH3 3,5,5-triethylhexane CH3 CH2 CH2

26 Reaction of Alkane : Halogenation
Halogenation means substitution of halogens for hydrogen. RH + X2  RX + HX X = F, Cl, Br, I Example : CH3CH3 + Cl2  CH3CH2Cl + HCl chloroethane

27 Reaction of Alkane : Dehydrogenation
Dehydrogenation means removal of hydrogen. CnH2n – 900 oC CnH2n + H2 Example : CH3CH2CH3  CH3CH=CH2 + H2 propene

28 Reaction of Alkane : Cracking
Cracking means breaking up large molecules to form smaller ones. Example : C16H34  C8H18 + C8H16 alkane alkane alkene

29 Reaction of Alkane : Isomerization
Isomerization means rearrangement of molecular structures. Example :

30 Chlorination Products of Methane (1)
CH4 + Cl2  CH3Cl CH3Cl + Cl2  CH2Cl2 CH2Cl2 + Cl2  CHCl3 CHCl3 + Cl2  CCl4 + HCl

31 Chlorination Products of Methane (2)
Formula IUPAC name Common name CH3Cl Chloromethane Methyl chloryde CH2Cl2 Dichloromethane Methylene chloryde CHCl3 Trichloromethane Chloroform CCl4 Tetrachloromethane Carbon tetrachloride

32 Cycloalkane/cycloparaffin/naphtane
Cycloalkanes are types of alkanes which have one or more rings of carbon atoms in the chemical structure of their molecules  struktur alisiklik. Rumus: CnH2n Contoh:

33 Cyclopropane Cyclobutane Cyclopentane Cyclohexane
C3H C4H8 C5H C6H12

34 Sources of Alkanes

35 The two main sources of alkanes are
natural gas and petroleum / crude oil. Natural gas consists of : Methane Other hydrocarbons Hydrogen Nitrogen Carbon monoxide Carbon dioxide Hydrogen sulfide (just in some location)

36 Petroleum is formed by the decomposition of plants and animals over million of years.
Carbon Hydrogen Nitrogen Oxygen Sulfur Metals Four different types of hydrocarbon molecules appear in crude oil : Paraffins Naphthenes Aromatics Asphaltics

37 Fractional Distillation of Crude Oil


39 Crude oil is separated into fractions by fractional distillation
Crude oil is separated into fractions by fractional distillation. The fractions at the top of the fractional column have lower boiling points than the fractions at the bottom. The heavy bottom fractions are often cracked into lighter, more useful products. All of the fractions are processed further in other refining units.


41 Octane Rating

42 Octane CH3(CH2)6CH3 Octane has 18 structural isomers :
Octane (n-octane) 0 2-Methylheptane 3-Methylheptane 4-Methylheptane 3-Ethylhexane 2,2-Dimethylhexane 2,3-Dimethylhexane 2,4-Dimethylhexane 2,5-Dimethylhexane 3,3-Dimethylhexane 3,4-Dimethylhexane 2-Methyl-3-ethylpentane 3-Methyl-3-ethylpentane 2,2,3-Trimethylpentane 2,2,4-Trimethylpentane (isooctane) 100 2,3,3-Trimethylpentane 2,3,4-Trimethylpentane 2,2,3,3-Tetramethylbutane

43 The octane rating was developed by chemist Russel Marker at the Ethyl Corporation at The selection of n-heptane as the zero point of the scale was due to the availability of very high purity n-heptane, not mixed with other isomers of heptane or octane, distilled from the resin of the Jeffrey Pine. Other sources of heptane produced from crude oil contain a mixture of different isomers with greatly differing ratings, which would not give a precise zero point. Higher octane ratings correlate to higher activation energies. Activation energy is the amount of energy necessary to start a chemical reaction. Since higher octane fuels have higher activation energies, it is less likely that a given compression will cause detonation.

44 The alternative method to boost octane rating and minimize engine knocking is too add small amounts of an additive to the fuel. One such additive commonly used in gasoline was tetraethyllead, (C2H5)4Pb. The function of tetraethyllead is to prevent the premature explosions that constitute knocking. Use of tetraetthyllead additives poses a serious enviromental hazard. Lead becomes pollutant in air, water, and sovent. Current additives in anleaded gasoline : Toluene Xylene Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)


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