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Nation Building and Economic Transformation in the Americas, 1800-1890 Chapter 23.

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Presentation on theme: "Nation Building and Economic Transformation in the Americas, 1800-1890 Chapter 23."— Presentation transcript:

1 Nation Building and Economic Transformation in the Americas, Chapter 23

2 Independence in Latin America

3 Colonial Frustration Colonial Frustration Political and economic power of officials Political and economic power of officials High taxes High taxes Imperial monopolies Imperial monopolies What inspired them? What inspired them? The Portuguese royal family fled to Brazil The Portuguese royal family fled to Brazil Napoleon Napoleon In Spain, Napoleon forced King Ferdinand off of the throne In Spain, Napoleon forced King Ferdinand off of the throne Junta Central Junta Central Roots of Revolution

4 The majority of residents in Spanish America wanted autonomy and their own local Juntas. The majority of residents in Spanish America wanted autonomy and their own local Juntas. Local dissenters in Venezuela, Mexico, and Bolivia overthrew Spanish officials in Local dissenters in Venezuela, Mexico, and Bolivia overthrew Spanish officials in Result: Result:

5 Spanish South America, Venezuela 1811 claimed independence Venezuela 1811 claimed independence Creole interest Creole interest Spanish loyalists Spanish loyalists Free blacks and slaves Free blacks and slaves Simon Bolivar Simon Bolivar Force and personality Force and personality New allies New allies Confederation Confederation By 1821, Bolivar won Venezuela’s independence By 1821, Bolivar won Venezuela’s independence

6 San Martin Leads Southern Liberation Forces San Martin Leads Southern Liberation Forces Jose de San Martin declared independence in 1816 in Argentina-Rio de la Plata. Jose de San Martin declared independence in 1816 in Argentina-Rio de la Plata. This was after Ferdinand gained power in Spain This was after Ferdinand gained power in Spain Met with Bolivar in Ecuador in 1822 Met with Bolivar in Ecuador in 1822 Gran Colombia formed in 1824 Gran Colombia formed in 1824 Peru 1824 Peru 1824

7 Mexico, In 1810, Mexico was Spain’s richest and most populous colony In 1810, Mexico was Spain’s richest and most populous colony Dislocation of Amerindians Dislocation of Amerindians Crop failures and epidemics Crop failures and epidemics Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla and Jose Maria Morelos led violent rebellions from Loyalist forces defeated the insurrections. Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla and Jose Maria Morelos led violent rebellions from Loyalist forces defeated the insurrections.

8 In 1820 a revolution in Spain put a liberal group in power in Mexico. Mexico feared the loss of their privileges in the Spanish colony. So they united in support of Mexico’s independence from Spain. Ironically, Agustin de Iturbide- the man who defeated the rebel Padre Morelos- proclaimed independence in In 1820 a revolution in Spain put a liberal group in power in Mexico. Mexico feared the loss of their privileges in the Spanish colony. So they united in support of Mexico’s independence from Spain. Ironically, Agustin de Iturbide- the man who defeated the rebel Padre Morelos- proclaimed independence in 1821.

9 United Providence of Central America United Providence of Central America Central America declared its absolute independence from Spain in By 1823, Iturbide was overthrown. Central America then declared its absolute independence from Mexico. Central America declared its absolute independence from Spain in By 1823, Iturbide was overthrown. Central America then declared its absolute independence from Mexico. Nicaragua, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, and Costa Rica Nicaragua, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, and Costa Rica

10 Brasil, to 1831 King John VI of Portugal ruled his kingdom from Brasil until his return in His son, Pedro remained in Brasil, declaring himself king and making it an independent constitutional monarchy. King John VI of Portugal ruled his kingdom from Brasil until his return in His son, Pedro remained in Brasil, declaring himself king and making it an independent constitutional monarchy. Pedro’s liberal policies made him unpopular. Pedro’s liberal policies made him unpopular. Abdicated in favor of his son, Pedro II, who reigned until republicans overthrew him in Abdicated in favor of his son, Pedro II, who reigned until republicans overthrew him in 1889.

11 The Problem of Order,

12 Constitutional Experiments Leaders in the U.S. and Latin America espoused constitutionalism. Leaders in the U.S. and Latin America espoused constitutionalism. Inexperience v. experience Inexperience v. experience Canada Canada Est. governments in each province by In 1867, they formed ______ in Ottawa. Est. governments in each province by In 1867, they formed ______ in Ottawa. Latin America Latin America Inexperience led to: Inexperience led to:

13 Personalist Leaders Successful military leaders were able to use military reputations as the foundation of their political power (Americas). Successful military leaders were able to use military reputations as the foundation of their political power (Americas). Had a bigger influence on Latin America Had a bigger influence on Latin America Political participation Political participation Was limited to the rich so populist leaders sought to represent the ___ and undermine the constitutional order and move toward _____. Was limited to the rich so populist leaders sought to represent the ___ and undermine the constitutional order and move toward _____. Andrew Jackson Andrew Jackson Jose Paez in Venezuela Jose Paez in Venezuela

14 Personalist leaders like Paez and Jackson identified with the common people but.. Personalist leaders like Paez and Jackson identified with the common people but.. Why were there more personalist leaders in Latin America? Why were there more personalist leaders in Latin America? Caudillos- Caudillos- Napolean Napolean

15 The Threat of Regionalism Weak central governments in the Americas led to sectionalism. Weak central governments in the Americas led to sectionalism. Secessionist movements Secessionist movements Failed multistate federations Failed multistate federations Central America split from Mexico 1823 Central America split from Mexico 1823 Central America split into five nations Central America split into five nations Bolivia split from Argentina Bolivia split from Argentina

16 Regionalism in the U.S. Regionalism in the U.S. Civil War Civil War Why did the Confederacy fail? Why did the Confederacy fail? Timing Timing

17 Foreign Interventions and Regional Wars By the end of the 19 th century four countries successfully wages wars against their neighbors and est. themselves as regional powers. By the end of the 19 th century four countries successfully wages wars against their neighbors and est. themselves as regional powers.

18 European intervention: European intervention: U.S. U.S. War of 1812 War of 1812 Spanish American war 1898 Spanish American war 1898 French and English naval blockade French and English naval blockade Argentina Argentina Brasil (English) Brasil (English) French invasion of Mexico 1862 French invasion of Mexico 1862 Benito Juarez was replaced by Maximilien Habsburg Benito Juarez was replaced by Maximilien Habsburg Benito drove the French out in 1867 Benito drove the French out in 1867

19 U.S. versus Mexico U.S. versus Mexico 1848 annexation 1848 annexation Chile Chile Defeated Peru and ally Bolivia Defeated Peru and ally Bolivia Gained nitrate mines and outlet to sea Gained nitrate mines and outlet to sea Argentina and Brasil Argentina and Brasil Fought over Uruguay in 1820s, but finally recognized Uruguayan independence Fought over Uruguay in 1820s, but finally recognized Uruguayan independence All 3 of these then fought Paraguay and forced them to open its markets to foreign trade All 3 of these then fought Paraguay and forced them to open its markets to foreign trade

20 Native Peoples and the Nation- State Independent Amerindian peoples posed a significant challenge to the new nations of the Western Hemisphere. Independent Amerindian peoples posed a significant challenge to the new nations of the Western Hemisphere. U.S. expansion U.S. expansion Tecumseh and Prophet Tecumseh and Prophet Indian Removal Act 1830 Indian Removal Act 1830

21 Great Plains Great Plains Firearms and horses Firearms and horses Buffalo hunters Buffalo hunters Loss of land to ranchers Loss of land to ranchers Four decades of conflict Four decades of conflict

22 Chile and Argentina Chile and Argentina Checked settlement of whites until 1860 Checked settlement of whites until 1860 Population, stable government, military modernization Population, stable government, military modernization In 1870s they crushed native resistance and drove Amerindians onto marginal land In 1870s they crushed native resistance and drove Amerindians onto marginal land Mexico (Yucatan peninsula) Mexico (Yucatan peninsula) Mayans Mayans Caste War 1847 Caste War 1847

23 The Challenge of Economic and Social Change

24 The Abolition of Slavery Rhetoric of universal freedom contrasted with the reality of slavery. Rhetoric of universal freedom contrasted with the reality of slavery. Survived in much of the W. Hemisphere until _____.* Survived in much of the W. Hemisphere until _____.* Why? Why? 1808 U.S U.S.- Spanish American revolutions Spanish American revolutions Brasil and Cuba Brasil and Cuba

25 Abolition in U.S. Abolition in U.S. African Americans and women African Americans and women Emancipation Proclamation Emancipation Proclamation Thirteenth Amendment 1865 Thirteenth Amendment 1865 Brasil Brasil Pressure from England Pressure from England Respect in war Respect in war Paraguay Paraguay Caribbean colonies Caribbean colonies Decline in sugar in English Decline in sugar in English Overthrow of Louis Phillippe in French revolutions 1848 Overthrow of Louis Phillippe in French revolutions 1848 Puerto Rico and Cuba, 1873 and 1886 respectively Puerto Rico and Cuba, 1873 and 1886 respectively

26 Immigration As the slave trade ended, immigration from ___ and ____ increased in America. As the slave trade ended, immigration from ___ and ____ increased in America. Economic benefits Economic benefits Discrimination Discrimination Attempt assimilation Attempt assimilation

27 American Cultures Despite discrimination, immigrants altered the politics of many of the hemisphere’s nations as they sought to influence government policies. Despite discrimination, immigrants altered the politics of many of the hemisphere’s nations as they sought to influence government policies. Unequal distribution of income. Unequal distribution of income. Immigrants were changed by their experiences in their adopted nations, undergoing acculturation. At the same time, the languages, the arts, the music, and the political cultures of the Western Hemisphere nations were influenced by the cultures of the immigrants. Immigrants were changed by their experiences in their adopted nations, undergoing acculturation. At the same time, the languages, the arts, the music, and the political cultures of the Western Hemisphere nations were influenced by the cultures of the immigrants.

28 Women’s Rights and the Struggle for Social Justice In the second half of the 19 th century women’s rights movements slowly progressed. In the second half of the 19 th century women’s rights movements slowly progressed. U.S., Canada, and Latin America U.S., Canada, and Latin America Working class women: Working class women: Upper class women: Upper class women: Despite abolition of slavery, various Despite abolition of slavery, various forms of discrimination against persons of African descent remained in place. U.S. U.S. Lynching Lynching segregation segregation suffrage suffrage

29 Development and Underdevelopment What American countries attained the standards of living similar to those in W. Europe? What American countries attained the standards of living similar to those in W. Europe? Only U.S. industrialized Only U.S. industrialized Mining booms Mining booms European and U.S. mined in Latin America European and U.S. mined in Latin America This increased the dependence on ____ _____. This increased the dependence on ____ _____.

30 Latin America, the United States, and Canada all participated in the increasingly integrated world market. Latin America, the United States, and Canada all participated in the increasingly integrated world market. Industrialization v. exporting raw materials Industrialization v. exporting raw materials Why did Latin America fall behind? Why did Latin America fall behind? Dependency on exports Dependency on exports Weak governments Weak governments Civil war Civil war Dependency on Great Britain for ____ Dependency on Great Britain for ____ Neo-colonialism- politically, but not economically independent from Europe. Neo-colonialism- politically, but not economically independent from Europe.

31 Altered Environments Deforestation, soil exhaustion, and erosion Deforestation, soil exhaustion, and erosion Population growth Population growth Economic expansion Economic expansion Introduction of new plants and animals Introduction of new plants and animals Rapid ____ put a strain on delivery systems and sewage and garbage disposal systems led to spread of the timber industry. Rapid ____ put a strain on delivery systems and sewage and garbage disposal systems led to spread of the timber industry. The expansion of the mining industry led to erosion and pollution in Western U.S., Chile, and Brasil. The expansion of the mining industry led to erosion and pollution in Western U.S., Chile, and Brasil. All nations chose economic growth instead of protecting the environment. All nations chose economic growth instead of protecting the environment.

32 Napoleon’s Influence in Latin America First modern day dictator. First modern day dictator. Charismatic, personalist leader, glorified because of military career, savior. Charismatic, personalist leader, glorified because of military career, savior. Saves country from political chaos. Saves country from political chaos.

33 What liberals want Constitution Constitution Free trade Free trade Protection of property Protection of property Secular society Secular society

34 Liberals in America Do not want equality for: Do not want equality for: Women Women Slaves Slaves People of color People of color Indian, indigenous peoples Indian, indigenous peoples Asian and European immigrants Asian and European immigrants

35 Change Over Time 18 th century- political, social, economic change 18 th century- political, social, economic change 19 th century- liberals turn conservative- happy with change/no more. Populism brings chaos, revolts, destruction of property 19 th century- liberals turn conservative- happy with change/no more. Populism brings chaos, revolts, destruction of property Masses left out and want republicanism- Rousseau Masses left out and want republicanism- Rousseau In Latin America masses believe in populous leaders, while liberals exploit the masses. In Latin America masses believe in populous leaders, while liberals exploit the masses.

36 Real Liberals Abolitionists Abolitionists Feminists Feminists Union leaders Union leaders Socialists Socialists Communists Communists anarchists anarchists


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