Presentation on theme: "AFOA Canada National Conference Calgary, AB February 27, 2004"— Presentation transcript:
1AFOA Canada National Conference Calgary, AB February 27, 2004 Session 6 – Improving Financial Management and Accountability with the Financial Management Toolbox
2Points to Ponder #1Ham and Eggs: Just a day’s work for a chicken but a lifetime commitment for a pig.Why do toasters always have a setting that burns the toast to a horrible crisp, which no decent human being would eat?Why is there a light in the fridge and not in the freezer?
3ABORIGINAL FINANCIAL OFFICERS ASSOCIATION OF BC Presented byABORIGINAL FINANCIAL OFFICERS ASSOCIATION OF BC
4Welcome & Overview of Seminar FacilitatorsClay Harmon, DirectorMike Mearns, General ManagerModeratorSusan E. Wood, President – AFOA-BC
5Welcome & Overview of Seminar This seminar will overview the five toolbox chapters:First Nations Governance ConceptsFinancial Management By-LawFinancial Management ManualsStrategic PlanningCapacity Building
6How did the Financial Code Project begin? In the development of the First Nations Financial Code Toolbox, the Financial Management and Accountability Project committee members realized the importance of “beginning at the beginning”.
7Who are the Committee Members? AFOABC Board MembersSusan E. Wood, President Carol Kelly, Interim Vice-PresidentChris Bolton, Vice-President Lynn Anderson, Secretary-TreasurerClay Harmon, Director Mike Mearns, General ManagerAFOABC MembersChad Mason, Gitwangak Band CouncilJay Norton, DeGruchy, Norton and CompanyMargaret White, Nanaimo First NationMyrna Jacobson, Old Massett First NationSharlene Wilson, Nil/Tu Child and Family ServicesTrevor Morrison, Gitksan Watershed Authorities
8How did the Financial Code Project begin? WHAT DOES EACH TOOL BOX CHAPTER COMPRISE OF?The committees recommendations of successful applications developed throughout the country.Most have been developed by the Aboriginal Financial Officers Association of BCOthers have been used by permission by the authors.
9What is the definition of “CODE”? A systematic body of lawsA set of rules or conventions (an agreement between nations, a treaty; established usage, social custom)
10What is AFOABC’s interpretation of a Financial Code? WHAT IS A FINANCIAL CODE?The first task of the committee was to define what a Financial Code is and what it means.Through a brainstorming session the committee agreed that the following defined their thoughts of a First Nations Financial Code.
11What is AFOABC’s interpretation of a Financial Code? A FIRST NATION FINANCIAL CODES IS A SET OF PRINCIPLES THAT:Respects the culture, traditions and history of a First Nation.Protects, maintains and increases the resources of a First Nation through effective planning and control.Defines and implements the “Best Practices” for the preparation and communication of quality reporting.Provides high standards and ethical leadership for the equal and confidential treatment for all.
12What is the First Nations Governance Toolbox? WHAT DOES A FINANCIAL CODE TOOLBOX COMPRISE OF?The second task of the committee was to outline the toolbox “chapters”.This step was important to the creation of the toolbox since it would eventually lead a First Nation into adapting a governance structure that encompassed the First Nation Financial Code principles.It was also important that an order of evolution was outlined. This would guarantee the success of the toolbox application for a First Nation.
13What is the First Nations Governance Toolbox? The committee agreed the following chapters would be:First Nations Governance ConceptsFinancial Management BylawFinancial and Human Resource Policy and Procedures ManualsStrategic Management and PlanningCapacity Building
15Chapter One: First Nation Governance Concepts A constitution is a solid foundation for First Nation’s with a strong community vision to move ahead in:TreatySelf-governmentOther Nation building initiatives.
16First Nation Governance Concepts Part 1 – First Nations Constitution DevelopmentThis section includes information that relates to importance of having a constitution that provides a solid foundation for:codes,by-laws andpolicies development.
17First Nation Governance Concepts Some of the standard components of a First Nations constitution include the following:Founding ProvisionsRights and Freedoms of CitizensFirst Nation Government StructureGovernment Officials Roles and ResponsibilitiesFinancial Management and AccountabilityLands and ResourcesGeneral Provisions
18First Nation Governance Concepts The constitution would be specific for their community needs and would serve the purpose of:who you arehow you are governedhow the membership has input into governancekey positions for governance
19SAMPLE ORGANIZATIONAL CHART CHIEF AND COUNCILBAND ADMINISTRATORADMINISTRATIONSOCIAL DEVELOPMENTEDUCATIONHOUSINGRESOURCESHUMAN RESOURCESFINANCESKILLS TRAININGK - 12- 12LANDSFISHERIESFORESTRYCOMMUNITY MEMBERS
20First Nation Governance Concepts Part 2 – Government OrganizationThis section provides information about First Nation government organizational structure that supports the development of:various lawspoliciesproceduresadministrationguidelines necessary for good government
21First Nation Governance Concepts Government organization in broad terms is a constitution.The structure is developed to create:structuredepartmentscommitteesreporting and accountability systems
22First Nation Governance Concepts Financial management systems are an integral part of organization structure and are required for:budget planningallocationaudit requirements
23First Nation Governance Concepts Some examples of government organization components are:Government OrganizationCouncil size, committee structureCore Branches or DepartmentsAdministration, Finance and HRPrograms and ServicesHealth, SA, Education, Resource Mngt
24First Nation Governance Concepts Financial Accountability Policy SampleIs a solid basis for developing and adopting a policy to your own First Nation.The success of any policy is to give “life” to the document by ensuring that all members, staff and council is fully trained and understands the basis of the policy.As with all other policies that are adopted, it becomes a living document that all abide by.
25First Nation Governance Concepts The policy provides sample wording for:Compliance with PolicyFinancial Decision-Making ProcessConflict of Interest GuidelinesProcedures for Financial Information DisclosureDispute Resolution.
26First Nation Governance Concepts Appendix A – Building a Community ConstitutionThis Appendix is used by permission by the Institute on Governance. The handbook was developed in collaboration with the Samagok Anishnawbek First Nation and Canadian Executive Services Organization, Aboriginal Services in January 2001.
27First Nation Governance Concepts The handbook was born out of the Samagok workshop, and is meant as a guide for others First Nations during their constitution-building process.The handbook summarizes both international and Sagamok experiences, and outlines the basic process of developing a constitution.
28First Nation Governance Concepts It is organized around the fourquestions that formed the basis of theSagamok workshop:What is a constitution?Why have a constitution?What should a constitution contain?How can a community develop its constitution?
29Points to Ponder #2If the professor on Gilligan’s Island could make a radio out of coconut, why can’t he fix a hole in a boat?Gargling is a good way to see if your throat leaks.If a thing is worth doing, wouldn’t it have been done already?Failure is not an option. It’s bundled with your software.He who dies with the most toys is still dead.
30Chapter Two: Financial Management By-Law WHAT IS A FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT BYLAW?A key component of the First Nations Financial Code Toolbox is the ability for First Nations to make laws and enforce them.The Financial Management and Accountability Project Committee agreed that a sample financial management by-law would be an important part of the Financial Code Toolbox.
31Financial Management By-Law Section 83 of the Indian Act provides for the development of laws in variety of areas.Some First Nations have undertaken the development of a financial management by-law, in particular those that entering into the area of taxation, claims management and economic development.
32Financial Management By-Law Key components of the Financial Management Bylaw includes:1. Council Responsibilitiesplanning and budgeting for service and capitalprojectshiring of competent financial management staffcouncil responsibilities in the areas of annual budgeting, expenditures, information on contracts and tenders, financial statements and audit requirements is covered.
33Financial Management By-Law 2. Conflict of Interest GuidelinesIn the development of financial management by-laws conflict of interest guidelines are needed to ensure transparency in financial management procedures.
34Financial Management By-Law 3. Financial Information DisclosureThis relates to the need for accountability to membership and access to financial information.Disclosure also deals with Council member's requirement to provide information about potential financial benefits through Council decisions.
35Financial Management By-Law 4. Dispute ResolutionThis section of the by-law ensures there is a process for redress where a band member feels they would be adversely affected by a Council or administrative decision. This area also includes a process for mediation or arbitration.
36Financial Management By-Law This toolbox chapter includes sample policies that your First Nation can adopt.The policies are:Conflict of InterestDisclosureContracts and TendersOptional Committees and Boards
37Financial Management By-Law In conclusion, law making is an important part of First Nations governance and will requires sound judgment in their creation.Provided laws are based on a shared vision and constitutional provisions that will meet the needs of the community.This will in turn provide a solid base for health, social and economic development.
38Chapter Three: Financial and Human Resource Policy and Procedures Manual The focus of this First Nations Financial Code Toolbox chapter is on policy and procedure development and its role in helping your First Nation achieve its desired administrative goals.Included are sample policies and procedures for financial management and human resources that your organization may use as a template in the creation of your own.
39Financial/HR Management Manual WHAT ARE POLICIES?Policies and procedures help ensure that behaviours in the workplace conform to the expectations of the organization and to legal requirements.Different policies and procedures relate to general governance, function, strategic decisions or the administration of specific programs or activities.
40Financial/HR Management Manual The development of your own effective policies should support the vision, mission and values of your organization. It is important to consider these issues in your development:input from all affected stakeholdersrelevant, complete and understandable contenteffective communication to all stakeholders
41Financial/HR Management Manual all policies documented in a consistent formatappropriate authorization and accountability for administering the policya periodic review process to validate appropriateness and completeness
42Financial/HR Management Manual Policies should contribute to the growth and development of a high performance organization. Key components of effective policies contain:purpose/objectivescopeauthoritypolicy contentThey may also contain an effective date and consequences of non-compliance/redress.
43Financial/HR Management Manual WHAT ARE PROCEDURES?is a step-by-step list of activities required to conduct a certain task.ensure that routine tasks are carried out in an effective and efficient fashion, and in accordance with policy.should contain the following key components:the purpose of the procedure and the policy to which it relates.
44Financial/HR Management Manual step-by-step instruction on performing the given task.illustrations of any form involved and specific instructions regarding their use.any requirements related to review, approvals and signatures.any requirement relates to the communication of information.the position or person with primary responsibility.
45Financial/HR Management Manual In conclusion, it is important to remember that this process is irrelevant if all users do not receive and apply your published policy and procedures to their daily practice.Your new manual will be well received by all users if they are easy to understand, develops effective solutions and if there is a communication or training plan in place.
46Financial/HR Management Manual WHAT SAMPLES DOES THIS TOOLBOX CONTAIN?This toolbox chapter containsa sample Financial Procedures Manuala sample Human Resource Manual which includes samples of Codes of Conduct.Each sample includes samples of various forms, terms of reference for auditors, performance evaluation charts, grievance steps and oath of confidentiality forms.
47Financial Procedures Manual SAMPLE FINANCIAL PROCEDURES MANUALThis sample contains procedures for administration staff and council on the correct and approved methods of financial control fromthe recording receipts,depositing funds,disbursement procedurescapital assetsannual year-end audits.
48Financial Procedures Manual Good or Service Invoiced to First NationIs the good or service amount exceeding cost limits set by Chief and Council?NoIs there a BCR approving the expenditure?YesEnsure that expense is brought to Chief and Council for approvalAttach a copy of signed BCR to invoiceDoes the invoice reference a purchase order?Attach a copy of purchase order to invoiceForward invoice to department head or purchasing staff for verification and approval.Approval Granted?Notify vendor that invoice is not approved for payment.Forward invoice to accounts payableAccounts PayableAttach all packing slips, work orders, waybills, purchase orders, etc to invoiceCode expense to appropriate department and forward to department head for approvalInvoices returned to accounts payable for proper documentation or codingData enter invoice into computer accounting programOn scheduled cheque- run days, process cheques for invoices and forward for bank account signatoriesAre all the cheques signed?Release ChequesFinancial Procedures ManualSample Accounts Payable Process
49SAMPLE HUMAN RESOURCE MANUAL This sample contains policies for managing staff. It defines:the conditions of employmentbenefit entitlementreportingperformance evaluations and redress
50Human Resource ManualIt complies with the Canadian Labour Code and would work in cooperation with an Operations Manual.This is the single important document that would provide your First Nation with a healthy workplace.The First Nation that regularly reviews and amends their Human Resource Manual seldom has recruitment or retention problems.
51Points to Ponder #3If Wile E. Coyote had enough money to buy all that ACME equipment, why didn’t he just buy dinner?If corn oil is made from corn, and vegetable oil is made from vegetables, then what is baby oil made from?Did you ever notice that when you blow in a dog’s face, he gets mad at you, but when you take him on a car ride, he sticks his head out of the window?
52Chapter Four: Strategic Management & Planning The focus is strategic planning for First NationsThe information contained in this chapter was written by Jim Pealow, MBA, CMA, CAFM and being used by permissionIt is also course content reading for AFM4 – Strategy and Decision Making of the Certified Aboriginal Financial Manager program of the Aboriginal Financial Officers Association of Canada
53Strategic Management & Planning This publication will inform those in First Nations leadership positions about strategic management and accountabilityHighlight some practices that will assist in improving the quality of First Nations’ activities in planning and accountability.
54Strategic Management & Planning Information is presented in five sectionsFirst an introduction and addresses the current situation.The second is information on strategic management.The third looks at accountability and related issues.
55Strategic Management & Planning The fourth is a section of examples and best practices are presented to allow the reader to measure against and consider potential improvements.The last section includes sources of information to provide additional knowledge for those wishing to examine topics further.
56Strategic Management & Planning Learning ObjectivesBy using the information in this publication, you will be able to:Gain a better understanding of accountability and how it benefits an organization.Develop an accountability program.
57Strategic Management & Planning Understand the relationship between accountability and strategic management.Gain a better understanding of strategic management and how it benefits an organization.Assess strategic management activities in an organization.
58Strategic Management & Planning What is Strategic Management?Strategic management can be defined as the art and science of formulating, implementing, and evaluating cross-functional decisions that enable an organization to achieve its objectives.
59Strategic Management & Planning Other definitions bring in different elements integral to a strategic management process.This definition, however, clearly describes the heart of strategic management.Strategic management focuses on integrating all organizational activity for the purpose of achieving organizational success.Strategic management can be viewed as a formal planning process that allows a First Nation to pursue proactive rather than reactive strategies.
61Strategic Management & Planning How Do You Implement Strategic Management?Strategy implementation requires:policy support for the selected strategiesrelated tacticsobjectivesthe necessary resources.
62Strategic Management & Planning First Nations are able to formulate strategy but run into implementation problems because of financial capacity, lack of supportive policy or employee/volunteer motivation problems.Strategy implementation usually requires a supportive culture, appropriate organizational structure, and readjustment of current activities.
63Strategic Management & Planning Strategy implementation is the action stage and is sometimes referred to as “Where the rubber hits the road.” Everyone needs to be committed and understand the role they play in the success of the organization.Commitment will be achieved more easily if everyone participates in developing and understanding the strategy, what they must do to implement the strategy and get the job done.
64Strategic Management & Planning Key elements in strategy implementation are:flexibilitytrainingcontinuous improvement, policydecision makingproblem solving
65Strategic Management & Planning The best way to support implementation of strategy is to develop a business/work plan.The business plan is:a consolidation of all programs and activitiesoutline the strategies, related assumptions and activities to support the strategiesperformance indicatorsfinancial information such as budgetsindicates who will do what and when.
66Strategic Management & Planning If your process is easy to follow, and not overly prescriptive, you can be flexibleIt takes more time and effort to amend a 200-page business plan than one with 24 pages. Keeping it brief can be helpful. Size can impact perception.Some people would rather hold off on new innovative tactics than go through the tedious process of submitting a revision to a long document.
67Strategic Management & Planning What is Strategy Evaluation?Strategy evaluation is the stage of the strategic management process that is often neglected.This stage provides the opportunity to assess how well strategies are doing. and is important in terms of supporting accountability.Measuring performance to the goals that were set beforehand allows the assessment of progress.
68Strategic Management & Planning It also identifies areas where corrective action is necessary.Trends upon which the original strategies were developed change and, therefore, evaluations are required on a regular basis to assess impacts.There may be a need for abandonment, adjustment or new strategies.
69Strategic Management & Planning First Nations need to undertake a formal process to evaluate strategy.Since strategic direction is usually long term, a bad strategy can seriously influence a First Nation’s health and can be difficult to change.Therefore, timely and effective evaluations to identify problems or potential problems are critical.
70Strategic Management & Planning What is Accountability?Put simply, accountability is the same thing as responsibility – responsibility to a person or group of people.Accountability is used to make sure people do the things they should, and don’t do the things they shouldn’t.
71Strategic Management & Planning Types of Accountability:Political/ManagerialProgram or AdministrativeFiscalIndividual Stakeholder or Member
72Strategic Management & Planning Major Components of an Accountability Program:Planning and Performance ReportingPolicies and ProceduresRoles and Responsibilities
73Strategic Management & Planning Link Between Accountability and Strategic Management:To meet the accountability needs of an organization strong planning knowledge and skills are necessaryThe better conceived an organization’s strategy and the more competently executed with accountability and measurement, the more likelihood of success
74Strategic Management & Planning What Tools, Examples and Best Practices does the Toolbox Chapter contain?Strategic Management QuestionnaireStrategic Management Policy ExampleStrategic Plan Example – Ucluelet First NationAccountability Best PracticesStrategic Management Best PracticesProblem Solving and Decision Making ToolPriority Setting ToolActivity Plans
75Chapter Five: Capacity Building Once the key elements of governance are in place and function efficiently, attention to maintaining high standards becomes important.This chapter was designed specifically to assist financial managers become aware of the need for capacity building in their work with First Nations
76Capacity Building What is capacity building? Simply put... it is building competencies, relationships and models.Why do we need capacity building?To improve job performance and efficiencies.
77Capacity BuildingThe competencies capture the shift from the financial manager being primarily a scorekeeper to an expanded role of providing advice and leadership on all financial activities.This becomes important as financial management of First Nations becomes more complex due to self-government initiatives, economic development and new partnerships.
78Capacity Building Provincial Level AFOABC exists to provide support to its membership in capacity building in a number of ways:1. Training and Development ConferencesAFOABC hosts 3-4 training conferences or events per year that serve to inform and train members in matters related to administrative and financial management. In conference planning, core competencies are used as guide to develop workshops and training sessions.
79Capacity Building 2. Aboriginal Financial Manager Certificate Program The Aboriginal Financial Management Certificate Program is an innovative part-time 18-credit program offered by Capilano College on behalf of AFOABC. This program offers students working in the finances offices of First Nations an opportunity to improve their skills in financial management and administration.
80Capacity BuildingStudents are trained in basic and intermediate accounting, computer applications, Aboriginal and business law, strategic management and leadership and communications. This program is offered when student demand and sufficient funds are available.
81Capacity Building National Level At national level, AFO Canada is the professional organization in Canada responsible for certification of First Nations financial managers and setting high standards for Aboriginal financial management. Competency Standards for Aboriginal financial management have been established.
82Capacity BuildingThese standards are the basis for development of curriculum used in granting credits towards the Aboriginal Financial Manager Program certificate, diploma, and the professional designation. They are also used in assessment of practical experience and the professional CAFM exam.
83Capacity Building What is Competency Modeling? Competency modeling is the process of identifying the key responsibilities in a specific job function and the observable outcomes and behaviours that can be expected at the learning, full performance and superior performance levels.Competency modeling enables practitioners, peers, clients and supervisors to reach consensus on skills, motives, attitudes or other personal characteristic that differentiates superior from average performers.
84Capacity Building The Need for Modeling The development of a validated model would add a much-needed visual dimension to the current listing of Financial Manager competencies.Most importantly, the process would enable Aboriginal Financial Officers Association members to reach consensus on the observable outcomes and behaviours associated with superior level performance by Financial Managers.
85Capacity BuildingConsensus on this subject will be vital in establishing a course of action to improve the financial management capacity in every First Nations community.The modeling process would also identify and document ‘best practices’ in the role of the Financial Manager that could then be shared with all First Nations communities.
86Capacity Building Applications and Benefits A Financial Manager competency model would provide a visual reference of the specific attributes at three distinct levels of performance and would be used in a variety of applications including:Serving as a base for curriculum development.Identifying and measuring work experience requirements.Developing continuing professional development services.
87Capacity BuildingConducting guided assessments to identify professional development needsRecruitment and selection.Providing a source of best practices to support governance initiatives and sound financial management.Conducting performance appraisals.Compensation Analysis.
88Capacity BuildingThe Core Competency Domains for a Certified Aboriginal Financial Manager are:Aboriginal History and CulturesManagement Information SystemsCommunications & Personal SkillsEconomicsFinancial AccountingLawManagement AccountingQuantitative MethodsComputer ApplicationsStrategy and Decision MakingFinancial ManagementAboriginal Human and Fiscal Issues
89Capacity BuildingThis toolbox chapter includes the Financial Officer Competency Model WorkbookThe model was developed by Aboriginal Financial Officers Association BC membersThe model illustrates the different outcomes and behaviours that can be observed at the learning stage, full performance and superior performance levels
90Participant Feedback & Wrap-Up Please take this time to ask questions and provide feedback to the facilitators regarding the Financial Code Toolbox
91Participant Feedback & Wrap-Up Please take a few moments to complete the training session’s evaluation form.Your comments and suggestions assist AFOABC in planning future events
92Participant Feedback & Wrap-Up Thank-you for attending the Aboriginal Financial Officers Association of BC’s Improving Financial Management and Accountability with the Financial Management Toolbox Session and have a safe trip home!Ensure that the evaluations forms are handed out and returned by the participants. Ensure that the meeting sign-in sheets have been returned.