2Board Governance Research-based Standards Good Practices The ChallengesThe Link to Student Achievement
3AdvancED Accreditation Standards for Quality Schools/Systems Vision and PurposeGovernance and LeadershipTeaching and LearningDocumenting and Using ResultsResources and Support SystemsStakeholder Communications and RelationshipsCommitment to Continuous Improvement
5Governance and Leadership The system provides governance and leadership that promote student performance and school effectiveness.In fulfillment of this standard, the system operates under the jurisdiction of a governing board that:Establishes and communicates policies and procedures that provide for the effective operation of the systemRecognizes and preserves the executive, administrative, and leadership authority of the administrative head of the systemEnsures compliance with applicable local, state, and federal laws, standards, and regulationsImplements policies and procedures that provide for the orientation and training of the governing boardBuilds public support, secures sufficient resources, and acts as a steward of the system’s resourcesMaintains access to legal counsel to advise or obtain information about legal requirements and obligationsMaintains adequate insurance or equivalent resources to protect its financial stability and administrative operations
6Governance and Leadership The system provides governance and leadership that promote student performance and school effectiveness.In fulfillment of this standard, the system has leadership that:Provides for systematic analysis and review of student performance and school and system effectivenessCreates and supports collaborative networks of stakeholders to support system programsProvides direction, assistance, and resources to align, support, and enhance all parts of the system in meeting organizational and student performance goalsProvides internal and external stakeholders meaningful roles in the decision-making process that promote a culture of participation, responsibility, and ownershipAssesses and addresses community expectations and stakeholder satisfactionImplements an evaluation system that provides for the professional growth of all personnel
7Effective Practices for Effective Boards General DutiesOversees the business and affairs of the school/system;Establishes financial policies, provides ongoing financial oversight, and ensures financial stability;Ensures that there are written procedures for the termination and/or suspension of any student and that professional ethics are strictly observed should such procedures need to be activated;Establishes policies to ensure no conflict of interest between business, professional or parental roles and duties to the school;Assures that guidelines for student conduct, attendance, and dress are written and communicated to all students, parents, and staff members;Ensures that personnel policies are in place and provide for the ethical treatment of all staff with respect to hiring practices, compensation, evaluation, and working conditionsSupports and models inclusive decision making methods;Maintains adequate risk management policies for the protection of the school, including governance policies in the event of an emergency;Hires and oversees the administrative head of the school; andImplements a remuneration plan for all members of the staff that recognizes the administrative head as the highest paid employee.
8Effective Practices for Effective Boards Financial OversightAs referenced on the previous slide, the board plays a critical role in financial oversight. The following practices provide more detail on this role. The governing board:Assures that the accounts are kept in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles and are audited annually by an independent, licensed accountant;Assures that debt service or lines of credit are managed in such ways as to ensure that fiscal responsibility remains under the control of the governing authority;Maintains adequate insurance or equivalent resources to protect its financial stability and administrative operations from protracted proceedings and claims for damageMaintains a policy for funds in reserve;Ensures the financial stability of the school system, and assures that the school system is not in, nor in prospect of moving into, financial reorganization under the protection of bankruptcy; andMaintains policies for fund raising and adheres to accepted standards for reporting and recognizing gift revenues and fund raising expenditures.
9Effective Practices for Effective Boards Role of Governing Board and Administrative HeadIndicator 2.2 Recognizes and preserves the executive, administrative, and leadership prerogatives of the administrative head of the schoolIn support of this indicator, the governing board engages in the following practices:Maintains and adheres to clearly defined roles and responsibilities for board members and the administrative head of the school;Provides and implements orientation and evaluation procedures for board members and the administrative head;Maintains a strategic and policy-level focus;Enables the administrative head to focus on the day-to-day operations of the school;Preserves the administrative head’s ability to hire and evaluate personnel in accordance with established policies and procedures;Assures that the administrative head of the school allocates and aligns the human instructional, financial, and physical resources in support of the vision and purpose of the school; andProvides for stability in transitions of leadership.
10The Challenges Motivation to be a board member Is it a political office or service to community?Is it a job or volunteer?Am I serving to support my personal agenda or wanting to make a contribution?Identifying and electing the right people to serveEducating the community on the characteristics of a good board memberHelping communities encourage the right people to serveTraining and support for board membersUnderstanding the role and its responsibilitiesHelping people make an informed decision about serving on a boardMaintaining quality controlHow can a school system implement internal controls to support effective board governance?What reasonable and practical procedures can be enacted to address problems?
11Link to Student Achievement Thinking Differently: Recommendations for 21st Century School Board/Superintendent Leadership, Governance, and Teamwork for High Student AchievementBy Richard H. Goodman and William G. Zimmerman, Jr.Coherent governance: a board-superintendent relationship based on defined goals can raise achievement. By Randy QuinnSchool Boards at the Dawn of the 21st Century: Conditions and Challenges of District Governance. By Frederick M. HessPontiac School Board Must Do Better, Study Finds. By Chartwell Education Group
12Other ResourcesAdditional practices and resources with regard to effective board practices and school management are:National School Board Association’s website at which has published The Key Work of School Boards, which outlines eight key action areas to guide school boards in their efforts to improve student achievement.Georgia School Boards Association e-Board Solutions, which provides Boards electronic tools and resources to plan and conduct effective Board meetings. Resources include links to legislation, model policies, and peer sharing.The National Association of Independent Schools at offers Principles of Good Practice, which defines standards and ethical behavior in key areas of school operations for independent schools.