Pronouns A pronoun is a word that takes the place of a noun or another pronoun in a sentence or a phrase. Examples of pronouns: he, she, it, you, they, them, yourself, myself, himself, herself, yourselves, whom etc. Example sentences: David reads the paper; he reads it every morning. The pronoun ‘he’ replaces the noun ‘David’ and ‘it’ replaces ‘paper’. The boys didn’t make the team and they were very sad. The pronoun ‘they’ replaces the noun ‘boys’. Jane sent her mother yellow roses which are her favorite flowers. The pronoun ‘which’ replaces the noun ‘roses’ and the possessive pronoun ‘her’ stands in for the possessive noun ‘mothers’.
Helping Verbs Helping Verbs- Auxiliary or helping verbs help out the main verb in a sentence. They are used in verb conjugation to show the progressive and the perfect tenses of verbs. The following table lists some of the helping verbs: AmIsAre WasWereBe BeingBeenHave HasHadDo DoesDidCan CouldMayMight MustWillShould WouldOught toUsed to
Primary and Modal Helping Verbs Primary helping verbs Be, do, and have are considered the primary helping verbs. They are considered so because they can help the main verb or actually be the main verb. Modal helping verbs Modal helping verbs help “modify” the main verb so that it changes the meaning, somewhat. They help express possibility and necessity. Examples: can, could, may, might, will, would, shall, should, and must.
Prepositions Prepositions are words that show relationship between a noun, pronoun, and some other elements of a sentence. They link nouns, pronouns, and phrases to other words in a sentence. A phrase is a group of words that lacks either a subject or a verb and functions as a single part of speech. A prepositional phrase is made up of the preposition, its object, and any associated adjectives or adverbs. Prepositions are only used in phrases. The object of a preposition always asks a question with who or what after the preposition. Prepositional phrases never contain a subject or a verb.
Some commonly used prepositions are listed in the table below: AboardBelowIntoUnderAbout BeneathLikeUnderneathAboveBeside OfUntilAcrossBetweenOff UpAfterBeyondOnUpon AgainstByOverWithAlong DownPastWithinAmongDuring SinceWithoutAroundExceptThrough NearAtForthroughoutBefore FromToBehindInToward
Some compound prepositions are listed in the table below: According toIn addition toNext to Aside fromIn place ofOn account of Because ofIn spite ofOut of