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Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Organizational Behavior: Perception.

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Presentation on theme: "Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Organizational Behavior: Perception."— Presentation transcript:

1 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Organizational Behavior: Perception

2 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Food Survey Last month, a world-wide survey was conducted by the UN. The only question asked was... : "Would you please give your honest opinion about solutions to the food shortage in the rest of the world?" The survey was a huge failure because...: 1.In Africa they didn't know what "food" means. 2.In Eastern Europe they didn't know what "honest" means. 3.In Western Europe they didn't know what "shortage" means. 4.In China they didn't know what "opinion" means. 5.In the Middle East they didn't know what "solution" means. 6.In South America they didn't know what "please" means. 7.In the USA they didn't know what "the rest of the world" means

3 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.

4 Selective Attention Emotions and Behavior Organization and Interpretation Perceptual Process Model Environmental Stimuli Feeling Hearing Seeing Smelling Tasting

5 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Perception: A Social Information Processing Model Competing environmental stimuli: * People * Events * Objects Interpretation and categorization Stage 1 Selective Attention/ Comprehension Stage 2 Encoding and Simplification A C F A B C D E F Memory Judgments and decisions Stage 3 Storage and Retention Stage 4 Retrieval and Response C

6 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Social Information Processing Model of Perception Stage 1: Selective Attention/Comprehension Stage 2: Encoding and Simplification Stage 1: Selective Attention/Comprehension - Attention is the process of becoming aware of something or someone - People pay attention to salient stimuli Stage 2: Encoding and Simplification - Encoding is the process of interpreting environmental stimuli by using information contained in cognitive categories and schemata - The same information can be interpreted differently by people due to individual differences Stage 3: Storage and Retention Stage 3: Storage and Retention - Encoded information or stimuli is sent to long- term memory - Long-term memory is composed of three compartments containing categories of information about events, semantic materials, and people Stage 4: Retrieval and Response Stage 4: Retrieval and Response - Information is retrieved from memory when people make judgments and decisions

7 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Factors That Influence Perception Characteristics of the Perceiver Values and attitudes Motives Interests Experience Expectations Characteristics of the Target Structural beauty Novelty and Familiarity Motion and Change Repetition Intensity Sounds Size Contrast and Background Proximity Perceptual context Time Work setting Social setting Perception

8 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Attribution Process Internal Attribution –Perception that outcomes are due to motivation/ability rather than situation or fate External Attribution –Perception that outcomes are due to situation or fate rather than the person

9 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Kelley’s Model of Attribution Consensus: Consensus: Involves comparing an individual’s behavior with that of his or her peers. Low consensus indicates an individual is different from peers. Basic Premise: Basic Premise: An attribution is based on the consensus, distinctiveness, and consistency of the observed behavior. Distinctiveness: Distinctiveness: Involves comparing a person’s behavior or accomplishments on one task with the behavior or accomplishments from other tasks. Highly distinctive behavior or results represents a situation where the current behavior or result is significantly different from typical behavior or results on other tasks. Consistency: Consistency: Involves comparing a person’s behavior or accomplishments on a given task over time. - High consistency implies that a person performs a certain task the same, time after time. Predictions: Predictions: Internal or personal attributions are made when a behavior is associated with low consensus and distinctiveness, and high consistency. - External or environmental attributions are made when a behavior is related with high consensus and distinctiveness, and low consistency.

10 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Consensus People Individual Performance ABCDE People ABCDE Low High Source: KA Brown, “Explaining Group Poor Performance: an Attributional Analysis,” Academy of Management Review, January 1984, p 56. Used with permission.

11 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Distinctiveness Tasks Individual Performance ABCDE Tasks ABCDE Low High Source: KA Brown, “Explaining Group Poor Performance: an Attributional Analysis,” Academy of Management Review, January 1984, p 56. Used with permission.

12 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Consistency Time Individual Performance Time LowHigh Source: KA Brown, “Explaining Group Poor Performance: an Attributional Analysis,” Academy of Management Review, January 1984, p. 56. Used with permission.

13 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Attribution Errors Fundamental Attribution Error –Attributing behavior of other people to internal factors (their motivation/ability) Self-Serving Bias –Attributing our successes to internal factors and our failures to external factors

14 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Self-Fulfilling Prophecy Cycle Supervisorformsexpectations Expectations affect supervisor’s behavior Supervisor’s behavior affects employee Employee’s behavior matches expectations

15 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Identity: Who Am I? Social Identity Organizational Identity Personal Identity

16 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Perceptual Biases and Errors in Decision Making 1.Stereotype : A stereotype is an individual’s set of beliefs about the characteristics of a group of people. 2.Halo: 2.Halo: A rater forms an overall impression about an object and then uses the impression to bias ratings about the object. 3.Leniency: 3.Leniency: A personal characteristic that leads an individual to consistently evaluate other people or objects in an extremely positive fashion. 4.Central Tendency: 4.Central Tendency: The tendency to avoid all extreme judgments and rate people and objects as average or neutral. 5.Recency Effects: 5.Recency Effects: The tendency to remember recent information. Most recent information dominates perceptions, If the recent information is negative, the person or object is evaluated negatively. 6.Contrast Effects: 6.Contrast Effects: The tendency to evaluate people or objects by comparing them with characteristics of recently observed people or objects. 7.Primacy : 7.Primacy : First impressions 8.Projection : 8.Projection : Believing other people are similar to you

17 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Perceptual Biases and Errors in Decision Making 1.Overconfidence Error 2.Availability Heuristic 3.Representative Heuristic 4.Escalation of Commitment Error 5.Anchoring and Adjustment Heuristic 6.Confirmation Bias 7.Randomness Bias 8.Hindsight Bias

18 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Professors are absent-minded Our instructor is a professor Our instructor is absent-minded The Stereotyping Process Assign category’s traits to the person Assign person to category based on observable info Develop categories and assign traits

19 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. ImprovingPerceptualAccuracy DiversityInitiatives Empathize With Others PostponeImpressionFormation KnowYourself ComparePerceptions Improving Perceptual Accuracy

20 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Known to Self Unknown to Self Known to Others Unknown to Others OpenAreaBlindArea UnknownArea HiddenArea Know Yourself (Johari Window) Joseph Luft and Harry Ingham OpenAreaBlindArea HiddenAreaUnknownArea Disclosure Feedback

21 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Applications in Organizations Employment Interview Performance Expectations Performance Evaluation Organizational Communication Employee Effort Employee Loyalty

22 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Link Between Perception and Individual Decision Making Link Between Perception and Individual Decision Making

23 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Rational Model of Decision Making Problem Identify and Define Problem Generate Alternatives A1A1 A2A2 A3A3 A4A4 AnAn Evaluate Alternatives + A1A1 A1A1 A2A2 A2A2 AnAn AnAn Criteria Weight the Criteria T E C H Set Decision Criteria Choice Make Optimal Decision

24 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Assumptions of the Model One: Problem Clarity One: Four: Constant Preferences Four: Five: No Constraints Five: Two: Known Options Two: Three: Clear Preferences Three: Six: Maximum Payoff Six:

25 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. A Model of Bounded Rationality Ascertain the Need for a Decision Simplify the Problem Set“Satisficing”Criteria Identify a Limited Set of Alternatives CompareAlternatives Against Criteria Expand Search for Alternatives Select the First “Good Enough” Choice A “Satisficing” AlternativeExists Yes No

26 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. The Role of Intuition Intuition Uncertainty Limited Facts and Data Time Less Scientific Predictability

27 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. AnalyticConceptual BehavioralDirective RationalIntuitive Way of Thinking High Low Tolerance for Ambiguity Decision-Making Styles

28 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. OrganizationalConstraints PerformanceEvaluations RewardSystems HistoricalConstraints TimeConstraints Formal Regulations Formal Regulations

29 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. CulturalDifferences ProblemIdentification The Value of RationalityTimeOrientation Groups or Individuals

30 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Decision-Making and Ethics Utilitarian Rights Justice


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