3 AICR Guidelines for Cancer Prevention Be as lean as possible without becoming underweight.Be physically active for at least 30 minutes every day.Avoid sugary drinks. Limit consumption of energy-dense foods.Eat more of a variety of vegetables, fruits, whole grains and legumes such as beans.Limit consumption of red meats (such as beef, pork and lamb) and avoid processed meats.If consumed at all, limit alcoholic drinks to 2 for men and 1 for women a day.Limit consumption of salty foods & foods processed with sodium.Don't rely on supplements to protect against cancer.
4 Healthy WeightBe as lean as possible without being underweight.
5 Healthy Weight Why does weight matter? Fat (especially abdominal fat) acts as a hormone pumpStrong link to colon, pancreas and endometrial cancer, as well as breast cancer (in postmenopausal women).Risk factor for other health issues (diabetes, heart disease, etc)AICR: maintaining a health wt is one of the most important things you can do to reduce your risk of cancerMany health benefits from maintaining a health wt: decrease cancer risk, chronic ds risk (type 2 DM and heart ds)Where you store fat can affect cancer risk: excess fat around our waist acts as hormone pump releasing estrogen into the blood stream as well as raising levels of other hormones in body; stronly linked to colon, pancreatic and endometrial (lining of uterus) as well as breast cancerSource: American Institute for Cancer Research, Second Expert Report, 2007
6 Physical ActivityBe physically active for at least 30 minutes each day.
7 Physical Activity ADD SUBTRACT REPLACE Three Strategies for Lifestyle ChangeADDSUBTRACTREPLACE
8 Physical Activity ADD Add 30 minutes per day (150 minutes per week) Do something you love!Try tying the activity to something you already have a habit of doing.Phone a friendSET A GOAL… (Try it right now!!)Be specific! What days, for how long, what activity, where, with whom.Is it attainable?Do you have a plan B? (The weather is not always your friend!)ADD
9 Physical Activity SUBTRACT Subtract TV time from your weekly routine. More likely to eat mindlesslyMore likely to eat undesirable foodsLimit sedentary activitiesIf you can’t peel yourself away, try these tips:Get out of the chair at each commercial breakDo some simple exercises during the show (sit-ups, push-ups)Set up a new household rule: only eat at the table! If you want a snack, the TV must be OFF.SUBTRACT
10 Physical Activity REPLACE Once you get moving, kick it up a notch! Replace your usual moderate-level activity with a vigorous activity twice a weekUse the talk testHeart rate: if you want to be more preciseRemember, every little bit counts, and ANY activity is better than none.Don’t have 30 minutes to spare? Break it up into two 15 minute sessions, or three 10 minute sessions.REPLACE
11 Energy DensityAvoid sugary drinks. Limit consumption of energy-dense foods.
12 Carbohydrates Simple vs Complex Carbohydrates Simple carbs: Refined flour, cookies, pastries, white rice, sweeteners, soft drinks, etcHigh intake of soft drinks and refined carbohydrates linked to pancreatic cancerEmpty calories, may promote weight gain.Choose complex carbohydrates more frequently: whole grains, fruits/vegetables, beans, etc. Drink water or unsweetened beverages.Simple CHO:Avoid sugary drinks helps avoid wt gainPeople tend to drink calories but it does not make us feel full and high in empty caloriesSources: American Institute for Cancer Research, 2007Larsson,S, Bergkvist, L & Wolk, A (2006). Consumption of sugar and sugar-sweetenedfoods and the risk of pancreatic cancer in a prospective study. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 84,
13 Guess which side has more calories Energy DensityGuess which side has more caloriesWhite Refined ProductsPhotos: Dr. Barbara Rolls, Penn State University
14 Fats Unsaturated Fats (the “good”) Saturated Fats (the “bad”) Liquid at room temperaturePlant sourcesSaturated Fats (the “bad”)Solid at room temperatureAnimal Sources (mostly)Linked to cancer, heart diseaseLimited quantityTrans Fats (“the “ugly”)“Hydrogenated Fats”Self stable and frozen productsAvoid entirely
15 Fats (cont’d) Omega-3 (anti-inflammatory) Omega-6 Fish (fatty, cold-water)WalnutsCanola OilFortified FoodsFlaxseedOmega-6Fried FoodsAnimal MeatsGrainsMay benefit from changing ratio of Omega-3 to Omega-6 by increasing Omega-3’s.
16 Plant FoodsEat more of a variety of vegetables, fruits, whole grains and legumes (such as beans).
17 Prevention & Diet Move Fruits & Vegetables to the Center of the Plate Goal: Five to Nine Servings a DayStandard serving: ½ cupPrevent at least 20% of all cancersFiberDon’t count on juice!Vitamins, Minerals, PhytochemicalsPrimary source of the cancer-preventativeproperties of fruits and vegetablesAt least 2/3rds of plate with vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and beansProtects against many cancers including: mouth, larnyx, esophagus, stomach, lung, pancreas, and prostateOne reason to increase proportion of vegetables, fruits, and whole grains and beans on your plate is to help reduce risk of cancer and other chronic diseasesSecond reason is substituting plant based foods for foods rich in fat will help manage your weightMost plant foods contain a lot of fiber and water. They fill you up and make you feel satisfied. They are also low in calories. So when you’ve stopped eating, you’ve consumed fewer calories than if you had eaten fatty foods. So makes your stomach feel full on fewer calories.Source: American Institute for Cancer Research, Second Expert Report, 2007
18 PhytochemicalsNaturally occurring chemicals found in fruits, vegetables, beans, herbs, spices and whole grainsExamples:GarlicFlaxHot red peppersGrapesGreen tea (polyphenols), tomato (lycopene), ginger, cinnamon, turmeric or curry (curcumin)
19 Animal foodLimit consumption of red meats (such as beef, pork, and lamb) and avoid processed meats.
20 Animal Food Protein Limit animal sources of protein (meats and dairy) Red Meat: lean cuts & limit 2.5 oz daily; 18 oz per weekAvoid processed meatsChoose more:Nuts and seedsBeans and legumesSoyRed meats: beef, pork, lambDiets high in red meats increase risk of colon cancerHeme iron, compound that gives red meat is color, has been shown to damage the lining of the colonWhen meat is preserved by smoking, curing, or salting, or by the addition of preservatives, cancer causing agents (carcinogens) can be formed. These substances can damage cells in the body, leading to the development of cancerNo specific limits set on poultry, fish, and game; keep portions small enough you have room for an abundance of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and beansMost plant foods contain a lot of fiber and water. They fill you up and make you feel satisfied. They are also low in calories. So when you’ve stopped eating, you’ve consumed fewer calories than if you had eaten fatty foods. So makes your stomach feel full on fewer calories.Source: American Institute for Cancer Research, Second Expert Report, 2007
21 New American PlateReverse the traditional American Plate and think of meat as a side dish or condiment rather than the main ingredientExample: prepare your favorite store bought brown rice or grain mix and top with steamed green beans, carrots, yellow squash, and an ounce or two of cooked chicken.Source: American Institute for Cancer Research, Second Expert Report, 2007
22 AlcoholIf consumed at all, limit alcoholic drinks to 2 for men and 1 for women a day.
23 Cancer & Alcohol Drink alcohol only in moderation, if at all Can cause cancerMouth, esophageal, laryngeal, pharyngeal, breast, and liver cancers75-80% of oral cancers frequently used alcoholMen: 2 drinks a day; Females: 1 drink per day)More alcohol = Higher riskHigher risk if use tobaccoEmpty caloriesIncrease appetiteAlcohol is also the primary cause of liver cancer; increase risk of pharynx, larynx, esophagus, colorectal, and breast cancerDeath from liver cancer are higher among heavy alcohol users than those that do not drinkBy altering the livers ability to metabolize some carcinogenic substances into harmless compounds or to disable certain existing carcinogens, alcohols effects may influence not only liver cancer but other cancers as well.May also directly damage DNA increasing risk of cancerParticularly harmful when combined with smokingSource: American Cancer Society, 2007
24 SodiumLimit consumption of salty foods and foods processed with salt (sodium).
25 Sodium Select foods low in fat and in salt Limit processed foods Linked to most cancersGoal: less than 2.4 g(about a teaspoon)Caution: Don’t rely on taste!Table salt = sodium chlorideTaste desensitizationDaily intake should be less than 2400 milligramsSalt and salt preserved foods probably increase the chance of developing stomach cancerOne way may cause stomach cancer is high salt can damage the lining of the stomachMost of the salt in our diets comes from processed foods; we are not always aware they have salt because they may not taste salty so make sure to check the sodium content on the Nutrition Facts labelWatch out for breakfast cereals, bread, frozen meals, pizza, and chips; check sodium content of canned foods such as soups and sauces and avoid processed meatsEven sweet foods like cookies contain high levels of saltCheck food labels; long list of ingredients not desirable
26 Supplements Don’t rely on supplements to protect against cancer. Supplements do have a place (ex: vitamin deficiency, inadequate intake, etc)Problem: They are often used indiscriminatelyGet an expert opinion! (Hint: Registered Dietitians)Bottom line: Food comes first!There is absolutely NO substitutefor a healthy diet!
27 Lymphoma Survival Quercetin- a flavanoid found in dark leafy greens, apple skins, onions, tea, and berries. A study showed it may help inhibit lymphocyte proliferation by blocking an event that stimulates it.
28 Lymphoma Survival (Cont’d) Resveratrol- has been shown in research in combination with treatment may help induce apoptosis(cell death) in lymphoma and myeloma cell lines.
29 Lymphoma Survival (Cont’d) Genistein- an isoflavone found in soy may help sensitize diffuse large cell B-Lymphoma to CHOP chemotherapy.
30 Lymphoma Survival (Cont’d) Garlic- A sulfur rich compound purified from garlic may help induce apoptosis (cell death) in Hodgkin’s lymphoma cells.
31 Myeloma SurvivalCurcumin- a compound found in the spice turmeric may work to kill myeloma cells and prevent them from multiplying.
32 Myeloma Survival (Cont’d) Papaya- Papain along with other enzymes may weaken myeloma cells and increase the likelihood of responding to conventional chemotherapy. Anecdotal evidence suggests drinking papaya juice, which is rich in papain, may also be helpful in cancer therapy.
33 Myeloma Survival (Cont’d) Green tea- A compound found in green tea may aid in killing myeloma cells and prevent myeloma cells from multiplying. Research shows that green tea can interact with the treatment Velcade. The recommendation is to avoid green tea while on this treatment.
34 Myeloma Survival (Cont’d) Resveratrol- a compound that may help kill myeloma cells, prevent myeloma cells from multiplying, and enhance the effects of some common chemotherapies. Food sources include grapes, purple grape juice, red wine, peanuts, blueberries, and cranberries.
35 Resources American Cancer Society: www.cancer.org American Institute for Cancer Research:Cancer Treatment Centers of America: