Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Chapter 11 Nuclear Chemistry. 11 | 2 Nuclear Chemistry cont’d What is nuclear chemistry? The study of reactions that result from changes in the nucleus.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Chapter 11 Nuclear Chemistry. 11 | 2 Nuclear Chemistry cont’d What is nuclear chemistry? The study of reactions that result from changes in the nucleus."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 11 Nuclear Chemistry

2 11 | 2 Nuclear Chemistry cont’d What is nuclear chemistry? The study of reactions that result from changes in the nucleus of an atom

3 11 | 3 Nuclear Chemistry cont’d In nuclear chemistry specific atoms are called…… …….. nuclides. Nuclides are identified by two types of notation: 1.Nuclear Symbol 2.Element name-mass number

4 11 | 4 Nuclear Chemistry cont’d This is an example of a nuclear symbol.

5 11 | 5 Nuclear Chemistry cont’d The nuclear symbol can also be expressed as shown.

6 11 | 6 Nuclear Chemistry cont’d Practice Questions Write two notations for a nuclide that has: a.41 protons, 41 electrons, 55 neutrons b.11 protons, 11 electrons, 14 neutrons

7 11 | 7 Radioactive Decay

8 11 | 8 Nuclides are either stable or unstable Unstable nuclides (or radionuclides) undergo radioactive decay.

9 11 | 9 Radioactive decay is a nuclear reaction that emits radiation while changing the nuclide of one element into another.

10 11 | 10 For example; the silver- 113 radionuclide decays to cadmium- 113 with the emission of a beta particle and gamma rays.

11 11 | 11 Types of Natural Radioactive Emission

12 11 | 12 Three major types of natural radioactive emission: Beta particle (an electron from the nucleus) Alpha particle( the nucleus of a He atom) Gamma rays (energy similar to x-rays )

13 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 13 Nuclear Chemistry cont’d

14 Let’s look at Half-life

15 11 | 15 Nuclear Chemistry cont’d The half-life of a radionuclide is the time required for ½ of it to decay. Half-life is frequently given the symbol t 1/2.

16 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 16 Nuclear Chemistry cont’d

17 Half-life Decay Graph for 80 mg of Iodine-131

18 Equation to Determine Final Mass of a Radionuclide

19 Practice Problem I : How many grams of cobalt -60 is left when 2.0 g of it decays for 15.9 years? It t 1/2 is 5.3 years.

20 Practice Problem II : What is the t 1/2 for the radionuclide potassium-45 ( a beta emitter) if a 50mg sample decays to 5.3 years.

21 Let’s look at the Biochemical Effects of Radiation

22 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 22 Nuclear Chemistry cont’d Degree of Penetration by BAG Radiation

23 11 | 23 NPenuclear Chemistry cont’d Alpha.. No damage to skin.. Why? ( greatest damage when ingested… Why?) Beta ….. Severe burns to skin… Why? Gamma….. Severe damage to skin and internal organs….. Why?

24 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 24

25 This is the last powerpoint slide in this chapter

26 This is the last powerpoint slide in this chapter

27 →Fig Ernest Rutherford was the first person to carry out a bombardment reaction. Nuclear Chemistry cont’d

28 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 28 →Table 11.2 Nuclear Chemistry cont’d

29 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 29 CC 11.1 Tobacco Radioactivity Nuclear Chemistry cont’d

30 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 30 →Fig In the U-238 decay series, each nuclide is unstable except Pb Nuclear Chemistry cont’d

31 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 31 ←Fig Ion pair formation. Nuclear Chemistry cont’d

32 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 32 →CC 11.2 Irridated and nonradiated mushrooms Nuclear Chemistry cont’d © Peticolas/Megna/Fundamental Photographs, NYC

33 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 33 ←Fig Film badges are used to determine a person’s exposure to radiation. Nuclear Chemistry cont’d Doug Plummer/Photo Researchers

34 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 34 Fig Radiation passing through a Geiger counter ionizes one or more gas atoms, producing ion pairs. Nuclear Chemistry cont’d

35 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 35 ←Fig Components of the estimated annual radiation of an average American. Nuclear Chemistry cont’d

36 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 36 →CC A commercially available kit to test for radon gas in the home. Nuclear Chemistry cont’d

37 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 37 ←Fig Brain scans are obtained using radioactive technetium-99, a laboratory-produced radionuclide. Nuclear Chemistry cont’d Science Photo/Custom Medical Stock Photo

38 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 38 ←Table 11.4 Nuclear Chemistry cont’d

39 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 39 Table 11.5 Nuclear Chemistry cont’d

40 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 40 →Fig Cobalt-60 is used as a source of gamma radiation in radiation therapy. Nuclear Chemistry cont’d Yoav Levy/Phototake

41 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 41 ←Fig A fission chain reaction is caused by further reaction of the neutrons produced during fission. Nuclear Chemistry cont’d

42 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 42 →Fig Enormous amounts of energy are released in the explosion of a nuclear fission bomb. Nuclear Chemistry cont’d © Bettmann/CORBIS

43 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 43 ←Fig The cooling tower at the Trojan nuclear power plant dominates the landscape. The nuclear reactor is housed in the dome- shaped enclosure. Nuclear Chemistry cont’d © Albert J. Copley/Visuals Unlimited

44 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 44 →Fig The process of nuclear fusion maintains the interior of the sun at the temperature of approximately 15 million degrees. Nuclear Chemistry cont’d NASA

45 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 45 Nuclear Chemistry cont’d  CAG 11.2

46 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 46 →CO 11.1 Associated with brain- scan technology is the use of small amounts of radioactive substances. Nuclear Chemistry cont’d PhotoDisc

47 ←Fig Marie Curie, one of the pioneers in the study of radioactivity, is the first person to have been awarded two Nobel Prizes for scientific work. Nuclear Chemistry cont’d

48 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 48 →Table 11.6 Nuclear Chemistry cont’d


Download ppt "Chapter 11 Nuclear Chemistry. 11 | 2 Nuclear Chemistry cont’d What is nuclear chemistry? The study of reactions that result from changes in the nucleus."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google