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Chapter 22 – Nuclear Chemistry

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Nuclear Symbols Element symbol Mass number (p + + n o ) Atomic number (number of p + )

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Types of Radioactive Decay alpha production ( ): helium nucleus alpha production ( ): helium nucleus beta production ( ): beta production ( ): 2 4 He 1 0 e 2+

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Alpha Radiation Limited to VERY large nucleii.

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Beta Radiation Converts a neutron into a proton.

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Types of Radioactive Decay gamma ray production ( ): gamma ray production ( ): positron production : positron production : electron capture: (inner-orbital electron is captured by the nucleus) electron capture: (inner-orbital electron is captured by the nucleus) 1 0 e

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Types of Radiation

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Deflection of Decay Particles Opposite charges_________ each other. Like charges_________ each other. attract repel

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Nuclear Stability Decay will occur in such a way as to return a nucleus to the band (line) of stability.

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Half-life Concept

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Sample Half-Lives

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A Decay Series A radioactive nucleus reaches a stable state by a series of steps

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Nuclear Fission and Fusion Fusion: Combining two light nuclei to form a heavier, more stable nucleus.Fusion: Combining two light nuclei to form a heavier, more stable nucleus. Fission: Splitting a heavy nucleus into two nuclei with smaller mass numbers.Fission: Splitting a heavy nucleus into two nuclei with smaller mass numbers.

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Energy and Mass Nuclear changes occur with small but measurable losses of mass. The lost mass is called the mass defect, and is converted to energy according to Einsteins equation: E = mc 2 E = mc 2 m = mass defect m = mass defect E = change in energy E = change in energy c = speed of light c = speed of light Because c 2 is so large, even small amounts of mass are converted to enormous amount of energy.

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Fission

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Fission Processes A self-sustaining fission process is called a chain reaction.

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A Fission Reactor

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Fusion

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