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Chapter 22 – Nuclear Chemistry. Nuclear Symbols Element symbol Mass number (p + + n o ) Atomic number (number of p + )

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 22 – Nuclear Chemistry. Nuclear Symbols Element symbol Mass number (p + + n o ) Atomic number (number of p + )"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 22 – Nuclear Chemistry

2 Nuclear Symbols Element symbol Mass number (p + + n o ) Atomic number (number of p + )

3 Types of Radioactive Decay alpha production ( ): helium nucleus alpha production ( ): helium nucleus beta production ( ): beta production ( ): 2 4 He 1 0 e 2+

4 Alpha Radiation Limited to VERY large nucleii.

5 Beta Radiation Converts a neutron into a proton.

6 Types of Radioactive Decay gamma ray production ( ): gamma ray production ( ): positron production : positron production : electron capture: (inner-orbital electron is captured by the nucleus) electron capture: (inner-orbital electron is captured by the nucleus) 1 0 e

7 Types of Radiation

8 Deflection of Decay Particles Opposite charges_________ each other. Like charges_________ each other. attract repel

9 Nuclear Stability Decay will occur in such a way as to return a nucleus to the band (line) of stability.

10 Half-life Concept

11 Sample Half-Lives

12 A Decay Series A radioactive nucleus reaches a stable state by a series of steps

13 Nuclear Fission and Fusion Fusion: Combining two light nuclei to form a heavier, more stable nucleus.Fusion: Combining two light nuclei to form a heavier, more stable nucleus. Fission: Splitting a heavy nucleus into two nuclei with smaller mass numbers.Fission: Splitting a heavy nucleus into two nuclei with smaller mass numbers.

14 Energy and Mass Nuclear changes occur with small but measurable losses of mass. The lost mass is called the mass defect, and is converted to energy according to Einsteins equation: E = mc 2 E = mc 2 m = mass defect m = mass defect E = change in energy E = change in energy c = speed of light c = speed of light Because c 2 is so large, even small amounts of mass are converted to enormous amount of energy.

15 Fission

16 Fission Processes A self-sustaining fission process is called a chain reaction.

17 A Fission Reactor

18 Fusion


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