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**Chapter 22 – Nuclear Chemistry**

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**Nuclear Symbols Mass number (p+ + no) Element symbol Atomic number**

(number of p+)

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**Types of Radioactive Decay**

4 2+ alpha production (a): helium nucleus beta production (b): He 2 e - 1

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Alpha Radiation Limited to VERY large nucleii.

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Beta Radiation Converts a neutron into a proton.

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**Types of Radioactive Decay**

gamma ray production (g): positron production : electron capture: (inner-orbital electron is captured by the nucleus) e 1

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Types of Radiation

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**Deflection of Decay Particles**

Opposite charges_________ each other. attract Like charges_________ each other. repel

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Nuclear Stability Decay will occur in such a way as to return a nucleus to the band (line) of stability.

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Half-life Concept

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Sample Half-Lives

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**A radioactive nucleus reaches a stable state by a series of steps**

A Decay Series

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**Nuclear Fission and Fusion**

Fusion: Combining two light nuclei to form a heavier, more stable nucleus. Fission: Splitting a heavy nucleus into two nuclei with smaller mass numbers.

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Energy and Mass Nuclear changes occur with small but measurable losses of mass. The lost mass is called the mass defect, and is converted to energy according to Einstein’s equation: DE = Dmc2 Dm = mass defect DE = change in energy c = speed of light Because c2 is so large, even small amounts of mass are converted to enormous amount of energy.

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Fission

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Fission Processes A self-sustaining fission process is called a chain reaction.

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A Fission Reactor

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Fusion

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