1310-1-6 Nuclear Radiation, continued alpha particle: a positively charged particle that consists of two protons and two neutrons and that is emitted from the nucleus during radioactive decay
1410-1-7 Nuclear Radiation, continued beta particle: an electron or positron that is emitted from a neutron in a nucleus during radioactive decay
1510-1-8 Nuclear Radiation, continued Gamma rays are high-energy electromagnetic radiation.
1610-1-9 Nuclear Radiation, continued gamma ray: a high-energy photon emitted by a nucleus during fission and radioactive decay
1710-1-10 Nuclear Radiation, continued Neutron emission consists of matter that is emitted from an unstable nucleus.
1810-1-11 Nuclear Radiation, continued Neutrons are able to travel farther through matter than either alpha or beta particles.
19How does radiation affect the nucleus of an unstable isotope? Nuclear DecayHow does radiation affect the nucleus of an unstable isotope?
20Nuclear DecayAnytime that an unstable nucleus emits alpha or beta particles, the number of protons or neutrons changes.
21Nuclear DecayNuclear-decay equations are similar to those used for chemical reactions.
2210-1-14 Nuclear Decay, continued Gamma decay changes the energy of the nucleus, but not the atomic number or the atomic mass of the element.
2310-1-15 Nuclear Decay, continued The atomic number changes during beta decay, but not the mass number.
2410-1-16 Nuclear Decay, continued In beta decay the atomic number of the product nucleus increases by 1 and the atom changes to a different element.
2510-1-17 Nuclear Decay, continued A beta decay process occurs when carbon-14 decays to nitrogen-14 by emitting a beta particle.
2610-1-18 Nuclear Decay, continued Both atomic mass and number change in alpha decay.The atomic mass decrease by 4.The atomic number decreases by 2.
27Visual Concept: Alpha, Beta, and Gamma Radiation
28Math Skills Nuclear Decay Actinium-217 decays by releasing an alpha particle. Write the equation for this decay process, and determine which element is formed.1. Write down the equation with the original element on the left side and the products on the right side.X = unknown product; A = unknown mass;Z = unknown atomic number
29Math Skills, continued2. Write math equations for the atomic and mass numbers.217 = A = Z + 23. Rearrange the equations.A = 217 – 4 Z = 89 – 2A = Z = 874. Rewrite the equation with all nuclei represented.The unknown decay product has an atomic number of 87, which is francium.
30Radioactive Decay Rates How do scientists predict when an atom will undergo radioactive decay?
3110-1-19 Radioactive Decay Rates half-life: the time required for half of a sample of a radioactive isotope to break down by radioactive decay to form a daughter isotope
3210-1-20 Radioactive Decay Rates, continued Scientists can also use half-life to predict how old an object is.
33Math SkillsHalf-LifeRadium-226 has a half-life of 1,599 years. How long will seven-eighths of a sample of radium-226 take to decay?1. List the given and unknown values.Given: half-life = 1,599 yearsfraction of sample decayed = 7/8Unknown: fraction of sample remaining = ?total time of decay = ?
34Math Skills, continued2. Calculate the fraction of radioactive sample remaining.3. Determine how much of the sample is remaining after each half-life.
35Math Skills, continued4. Multiply the number of half-lives by the time for each half-life to calculate the total time required for the radioactive decay.Each half-life lasts 1,599 years.
36Radioactive Decay Rates, continued Radioactive decay is exponential decay.decay curve: a graph of the number of radioactive parent nuclei remaining in a sample as a function of timeCarbon-14 is used to date materials.The ratio of carbon-14 to carbon-12 decreases with time in a nonliving organism.By measuring this ratio and comparing it with the ratio in a living plant or animal, scientists can estimate how long ago the once-living organism died.