14Identifying Similarities and Differences Presenting students with explicit guidance in identifying similarities and differences enhances students’ understanding of and ability to use knowledge.Asking students to independently identify similarities and differences enhances students’ understanding of and ability to use knowledge.
15Identifying Similarities and Differences Representing similarities and differences in graphic or symbolic form enhances students’ understanding of and ability to use knowledge.Identification of similarities and differences can be accomplished in a variety of ways. The identification of similarities and differences is a highly engaging activity.
16Suggested Teaching Strategies: Identifying Similarities and Differences COMPARING: the process of identifying similarities and differences between or among things or ideas
20Suggested Teaching Strategies: Identifying Similarities and Differences CREATING METAPHORS: identifying a general or basic pattern in a specific topic and then finding another topic that appears to be different but has the same pattern
21Suggested Teaching Strategies: Identifying Similarities and Differences CREATING ANALOGIES—identifying relationships between pairs of concepts, identifying relationships between relationships
22Identifying Similarities and Differences: Try it! What items do you want to compare? What characteristics do you want to compare?How are the items similar and different based on the characteristics?CharacteristicsThingsTo beComparedPlace an 'X' in the box to indicate if an item possesses that characteristic.How are they alike? How are they different?
23Summarizing and Note Taking To effectively summarize, students must delete some information, substitute some information, and keep some information.To effectively delete, substitute, and keep information, students must analyze the information thoroughly.Being aware of the explicit structure of information is an aid to summarizing information.Provide opportunities for students to summarize key content.Teach students how to process information for their own note taking.
24Summarizing and Note Taking: Use summary frames and other organizers to assist students who learn visually.
26Summarizing and Note Taking: Informal outlines and webbing
27Suggested Teaching Strategies: Rule-Based Summarizing Summary Rule # 1: Use the Single Strike Out To take out material that is not important for your understanding.Summary Rule # 2: Use the Double Strike Out To take out words that repeat information.Summary Rule # 3: Replace lists of things with one word that describes the things in the list (example: replace ‘apples, oranges, and limes’ with ‘fruit’) Highlight these words in red.Summary Rule # 4: Find the topic sentence, and change the word color to green. If you can’t find the topic sentence, make one up and change to green.
28Summarizing and Note-Taking: Try It! Here’s What, So What, Now WhatThis is a great way to help students summarize a reading, a news article, and generate a discussion of information to help you plan for instruction. Ask students to write about their thoughts and share with another person or group:Here’s What: Describe one very important concept/skills that you learned during this lesson.So What: How can you practice or use this concept/skill so you will know that you understand and remember it.Now What: How can you use this concept/skill to help you in the classroom?
29Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition Not all students realize the importance of believing in effort.Students can learn to change their beliefs to an emphasis on effort.Rewards do not necessarily have a negative effect on intrinsic motivation.
30Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition Reward is most effective when it is contingent on the attainment of some standard of performance.Abstract symbolic recognition is more effective than tangible rewards.
32Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition What are some subject-specific ways to reinforce effortand provide recognition for your students?
33Homework and PracticeThe purpose of homework should be identified and articulated.Establish and communicate a homework policy.Design homework assignments that clearly articulate the purpose and outcome.
34Homework and PracticeParent involvement in homework should be kept to a minimum.
35Homework and PracticeIf homework is assigned, it should be commented on.Vary the approaches to providing feedback on homework assignments.
37Nonlinguistic Representations Nonlinguistic representations should elaborate on the pre-existing knowledge or the newly introduced knowledge.A variety of activities to produce nonlinguistic representations should be used…
39Nonlinguistic Representations: Making physical models
40Nonlinguistic Representations: Generating mental pictures When you read or listen to others read, you should paint pictures in your head. Imagine colors, sizes, and Consider all the details and paint a picture in your imagination.shapes
41Nonlinguistic Representations: Drawing pictures and pictographs
42Nonlinguistic Representations: Engaging in kinesthetic activities
43kinesthetic activities What are some nonlinguistic activities that connect to your subject area?GeneratingmentalpicturesMakingphysicalmodelsEngaging inkinesthetic activitiesDrawing picturesand pictographsCreating graphicrepresentationsthrough organizers
44Cooperative LearningOrganizing groups based on ability should be done sparingly.Students of low ability perform worse when they are placed in homogeneous groups.Students of high ability perform only marginally better when homogeneously grouped.Middle ability students benefit most.
46Cooperative groups should be kept small in size—3 or 4 members. Cooperative LearningCooperative groups should be kept small in size—3 or 4 members.Cooperative learning should be applied consistently and systematically, but not overused.Tasks given to cooperative groups should be well structured.If students do not have sufficient time to practice skills independently, cooperative learning is being overused.
47Working in groups of three… Partner #1 should share with the group someCooperative Learning activities that youhave used/or would like to use in your subject area.Partner #2 shouldtake notes aboutwhat Partner #1 shares.Using the notes, Partner #3 should tell a member from another group about the Cooperative Learning activities that were shared.
48Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback Instructional goals narrow a students’ focus.Instructional goals should not be too specific.Goals stated in behavioral objective format are not as effective as goals stated in more general formats.
49Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback Students should be encouraged to personalize the teacher’s goals, adapting them to their personal needs and desires.
50Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback Feedback should be corrective in nature.The best feedback shows students what is accurate and what is not.Asking students to keep working on a task until they succeed appears to enhance student achievement.
51Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback Feedback should be specific to a criterion, telling students where they stand relative to a specific target of knowledge or skill.Students can effectively provide some of their own feedback.
52Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback Feedback should be timely.The larger the delay in giving feedback, the less improvement one will see.
53Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback: Create your own rubric
54Generating and Testing Hypotheses Hypotheses generation and testing can be approached in a more inductive or deductive manner.Inductive: use general rules to make prediction about specific event.Deductive: specific pieces of information lead to general conclusion.Teachers should ask students to clearly explain their hypotheses and their conclusions.
55Generating and Testing Hypotheses: Teaching strategies problem-solving opportunities
56Generating and Testing Hypotheses: Teaching strategies
57Generating and Testing Hypotheses: Teaching strategies
58Generating and Testing Hypotheses: Teaching strategies Invention
59Generating and Testing Hypotheses: Teaching strategies
60Generating and Testing Hypotheses: Teaching strategies Use of decision making
61historical investigation experimental inquiry invention Generating and Testing Hypotheses How do these strategies fit into your curriculum?system analysisproblem solvingdecision makinghistorical investigationexperimental inquiryinvention
62Cues, Questions, and Advance Organizers Cues, questions, and advanced organizers should focus on what is important as opposed to what is unusual.“Higher level” questions or advanced organizers produce deeper learning than “lower level” questions or advanced organizers.
63Cues, Questions, and Advance Organizers Questions are effective learning tools even when asked before a learning experience.
64Cues, Questions, and Advance Organizers Waiting” briefly before accepting responses from students has the effect of increasing the depth of students’ answers.