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Presentation on theme: "CLASSROOM INSTRUCTION THAT WORKS"— Presentation transcript:


2 The most important factor affecting student learning is the teacher
Individual classroom teachers have an effect on student achievement Improving the effectiveness of teachers will improve student achievement Research has identified several teaching strategies that maximize the possibility of enhancing student achievement

3 The Nine Strategies These instructional strategies have the highest probability of enhancing student achievement for all students in all subject areas at all grade levels. Results based on the research of Marzano, Pickering & Pollock, (McREL research) – Planning Targets of Learning

4 THE #1 Most Effective Strategy
Identifying similarities and differences Comparing Classifying Creating Metaphors Creating Analogies

5 Venn Diagrams

6 Summarizing & Note Taking
Strategies for doing summaries Rule-based strategy Summary Frames for different types of writing Reciprocal teaching Note-taking Verbatim note-taking is least effective way to take notes Teacher prepared notes – model Various formats for note-taking- outlines, webs, combination notes

7 Reinforcing Effort & Providing Recognition
Not all students recognize the importance of believing in effort Students can learn to change their beliefs about the relationship between effort and achievement Rewards do not necessarily have a negative effect on intrinsic motivation Reward is most effective when it is contingent on the attainment of a standard Abstract symbolic recognition is more effective than tangible rewards

8 Homework & Practice Common purposes for homework: Practice Preparation
Elaboration Focused practice for skills and processes Conceptual Understanding of skills & processes

9 Nonlinguistic Representations
Creating graphic representations Making physical models Generating mental pictures Drawing pictures & pictographs Engaging in kinesthetic activity -

10 Cooperative Learning (Johnson & Johnson)
Five defining elements of cooperative learning: Positive Interdependence Face-to-face promotive interaction Individual & group accountability Interpersonal & small group skills Group processing

11 Kagan Learning Structures
Merging Cooperative Learning & Multiple Intelligences PIES Positive interdependence Individual Accountability Equal participation Simultaneous interaction

12 Setting Objectives & Providing Feedback
Focus instruction on goals, objectives, outcomes –share these with students Feedback should be: - Corrective in nature Timely Specific to a criterion Students can effectively provide some of their own feedback (assessment as learning)

13 Generating & Testing Hypotheses
Deductive & Inductive Learning Critical & Creative Thinking What this looks like in the classroom: Problem Solving Decision Making Investigation Historical Thinking Invention Experimental Inquiry

14 Cues, Questions & Advance Organizers
Cues are hints about what students are about to experience Cues & questions should focus on what is important as opposed to what is unusual “Higher level” questions produce deeper learning than lower “level questions” Allow for wait time Questions can be used before learning to establish a mental set

15 Advance Organizers Expository Narrative Skimming
Graphic Advance Organizers Webs Charts Other


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