Presentation on theme: "School Improvement slide"— Presentation transcript:
1 School Improvement slide IMPORTANT! Before using this PowerPoint:Review the “Research-Based High Yield Instructional Strategies” Learning Community Resource Packet to better understand the PowerPoint content and for the resources needed to complete some of the activities in this PowerPoint.(In the PowerPoint, directions are italicized. Script is not italicized.)PRESENTERWelcome to this professional development program. Today’s session is part of a series of professional development programs on the practices used by high performing school systems.
2 West Virginia Department of Education Mission The West Virginia Department of Education, in conjunction with the Regional Education Service Agencies and the Office of Performance Audits, will create systemic conditions, processes and structures within the West Virginia public school system that result in (1) all students achieving mastery and beyond and (2) closing the achievement gap among sub-groups of the student population.PRESENTERThis session is designed to help school systems achieve the two core components of the West Virginia Department of Education Mission. Those two components are:1. All students achieving mastery and beyond, and2. Closing the achievement gap among sub-groups of thestudent population.
3 Robert Hutchins The Conflict in Education in a Democratic Society “Perhaps the greatest idea that America has given the world is education for all. The world is entitled to know whether this idea means that everybody can be educated or simply that everyone must go to school.”PRESENTERThis mission allows us to address a statement made by Robert Hutchins over a decade ago:(Read quotation on slide.)Through No Child Left Behind we can say to the world that we accept not just the responsibility for compulsory education, but also the challenge of education for all.
4 What We Know…An emerging body of research identifies characteristics of high performing school systems.These school systems have made significant progress in bringing all students to mastery and in closing the achievement gap.These systems share characteristics described in The West Virginia Framework for High Performing Schools.PRESENTERWe feel optimistic about this challenge because of a growing body of research. This research indicates that this challenge can be met…many school systems have already made significant progress in achieving the mission of bringing all students to mastery and beyond, and losing the achievement gap.
5 CURRICULLUM MANAGEMENT INSTRUCTIONAL PRACTICES STUDENT/PARENT SUPPORT SCHOOL EFFECTIVENESSCULTURE OF COMMON BELIEFS & VALUESDedicated to “Learning for ALL…Whatever It Takes”HIGH PERFORMING SCHOOL SYSTEMSYSTEMIC CONTINUOUSIMPROVEMENT PROCESSCURRICULLUM MANAGEMENTINSTRUCTIONAL PRACTICESSTUDENT/PARENT SUPPORTRecommended Pre-Reading is The West Virginia Framework for High Performing School Systems.PRESENTERIn January of 2004 the Office of School System Improvement formed teams of educators to develop a school system improvement “framework.” Through a series of meetings, the teams read and discussed educational research, developed common definitions of terms, examined the effective practices of high performing districts across the United States and came to consensus on the essential components for closing the achievement gap. These components shaped The West Virginia Framework for High Performing School Systems. Let’s take a look at the Framework.This graphic representation of the Framework illustrates the major components of a High Performing School System. High performing school systems:Have strong core beliefs that shape the culture of a system dedicated to “Learning for ALL...Whatever It Takes.” This culture forms the “base” or “foundation” of the Framework.Implement system wide high yield strategies related to:Curriculum – “what” we teachInstruction – “how” we teachSchool Effectiveness – “where” we teachStudent/Parent Support – “who” we teachThese strategies form the four “Pillars” of the Framework. Each Pillar lists high yield practices that need to be used consistently and pervasively throughout high performing school systems. These practices are summarized in The West Virginia Framework for High Performing School Systems.Use a systemic continuous improvement process to bring about improvement. This process forms the “roof” of the Framework. The school system must be dedicated to the concept and process of systemic continuous improvement.Today’s session will focus on one of the high yield practices found in the Instruction Pillar:Research-Based High Yield Instructional Strategies
6 ObjectivesProvide a rationale for why schools would benefit from using research-based high yield instructional strategies.Define and identify what research-based high yield instructional strategies look like and how they may be used to increase student achievement.Explain how designing effective professional development is critical to the implementation of high yield instructional strategies.Share objectives with participants
7 Why focus on research-based high yield instructional strategies? High performing school systems want to enhance the quality of instruction of ALL teachers!PRESENTERHigh yield strategies are not just for struggling teachers or the best teachers. Implementation of these strategies will improve all instruction. They work with all grade levels and ALL subject areas.
8 Why focus on research-based high yield instructional strategies? High performing school systems understand that the quality of instruction is a more powerful achievement variable than students’ background characteristics.PRESENTEROur students come from a wide range of home situations and family backgrounds. We cannot let any of that become an excuse for low achievement. We must have high expectations for all, especially those that might have been assumed to be less capable of high level achievement. The use of research-based, high yield instructional strategies can help any student learn, regardless of background. Quality of instruction can overcome what students may lack in their background.
9 Why focus on research-based high yield instructional strategies? “Sanders concludes that quality instruction is ‘the single biggest factor influencing gains in achievement, an influence many times greater than poverty or per-pupil expenditures.’ ”George Manathey, quoting William SandersPRESENTERYou can add that quality instruction can also overcome poor facilities, lack of materials, different types of schedules, long bus rides, etc. A teacher using high yield strategies can overcome many of the factors that may keep students from learning.
10 Why focus on research-based high yield instructional strategies? High performing school systems understand that the use of research-based high yield instructional strategies improves instruction, learning and achievement.Share information on slide with participants
11 Why focus on research-based high yield instructional strategies? “We will never channel productive energy into creating the schools we really want unless we give up the magical belief that test preparation is a suitable surrogate for education. It’s time we replace magical thinking with the real thing: research based… instruction.” Jacqueline Grennon BrooksPRESENTERJacqueline Grennon Brooks is the author of the article “To See Beyond the Lesson” that is included in the Learning Community Resource Packet. This quote comes from that article. Brooks is also the author of “Schooling for Life: Reclaiming the Essence of Learning” (ASCD 2002).Discuss what “test preparation is a suitable surrogate for teaching” means and how that may differ from “researched based instruction”.
12 Classroom Instruction that works By School Improvement Instructional Pillar High Yield Instructional StrategiesClassroom Instruction that works ByRobert J. Marzano,Debra J. Pickering,andJane E. PollockPRESENTERClassroom Instruction that Works by Robert J. Marzano, Debra J. Pickering, and Jane E. Pollock contains the “essential nine” research-based high yield instructional strategies.
13 “We need to discover how a student’s unique brain is wired for reading and writing and then use a range of approaches that matches his or her “literacy style.” Thomas ArmstrongShare information on slide with participants
14 What about students below grade level? What strategies do you use when you encounter text you don’t understand?What strategies do STUDENTS use when they encounter text they don’t understand?What about students below grade level?The participants provide ways they manage to understand difficult text.Examples from the participants may include:look up the word in a dictionaryskip the word and go on to see if other words reveal the meaningsee if parts of the word can be broken down using prefixes, suffixes, and rootword origin.The participants provide ways students manage to understand difficult text.stay with the text and not give upcontinue to read on for meaningtry to figure out the word’s meaningask the teacherThe participants provide insight on what students below grade level may do.quit reading all togetherbecome disruptive and frustratedsleep
15 Categories of Instructional Strategies That Affect Student Achievement Include identifying similarities and differencesInclude summarizing and note takingInclude reinforcing effort and providing recognitionInclude homework and practiceInclude nonlinguistic representationsInclude cooperative learningInclude setting objectives and providing feedbackInclude generating and testing hypothesesInclude questions, cues, and advance organizersPRESENTERThe “essential nine” categories of instructional strategies are explained in Classroom Instruction that Works by Robert J. Marzano, Debra J. Pickering, and Jane E. Pollock.Robert J. Marzano, Debra J. Pickering, and Jane E. Pollock have examined decades or research findings to distill their results into nine broad teaching strategies that have positive effects on student learning.This list is not new. But what is surprising is finding out what a big difference it makes, for example, when students learn how to take good notes, work in groups, and use graphic organizers. The authors provide statistical effect sizes and show how these translate into percentile gains for students, for each strategy. Each chapter presents extended classroom examples of teachers and students in action, models of successful instruction; and many rubrics, organizers, and charts to help teachers plan and implement the strategies.To prepare for this book, researchers at Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning McREL analyzed selected research studies on instructional strategies that could be used by teachers in K-12 classrooms.
16 Identifying Similarities and Differences Presenting students with explicit guidance in identifying similarities and differences enhances students’ understanding of and ability to use knowledge.Asking students to independently identify similarities and differences enhances students’ understanding of and ability to use knowledge.PRESENTERIdentifying similarities and differences can be accomplished in a variety of ways:1. Comparing – identifying similarities and differences among items.2. Classifying – grouping items into definable categories on the basis of their attributes.3. Creating Metaphors and Analogies – Identifying a general or basic pattern in a specific topic and then finding another topic that appears to be quite different but that has the same general pattern.
17 Identifying Similarities and Differences (continued) Representing similarities and differences in graphic or symbolic form enhances students’ understanding of ability to use knowledge.Identification of similarities and differences can be accomplished in a variety of ways. The identification of similarities and differences is a robust activity.Share information on slide with participants
18 Summarizing and Note Taking “Rule-Based” StrategyDelete trivial material that is unnecessary tounderstanding.Delete redundant material.Substitute super ordinate terms for lists (e.g.,flowers” for “daisies, tulips, and roses”).Select a topic sentence, or invent one if it ismissing.PRESENTERWhat teachers can do:Model how to summarizeModel how to paraphraseEncourage students to write about what they readHave students journal about what they’ve readFormats for taking notes are;informal outline,web,and combination notes.Combination notes use both written and graphic representations, and are usually done side-by-side.Teach students a variety of note-taking strategies.Give students teacher-prepared notes.Remind students to review their notes.
19 The more notes that are taken, the better! Note TakingVerbatim note taking is, perhaps, the least effective way to take notes.Notes should be considered a work in progress.Notes should be used as a study guide for tests.PRESENTERThese are generalizations from the research.The more notes that are taken, the better!
20 Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition If a person is engaged in some activity for reasons of intrinsic motivation and if he begins to receive the external reward, money, for performing the activity, the degree to which he is intrinsically motivated to perform the activity decreases (Deci, 1971, p. 108).PRESENTERReinforcing EffortGeneralizations from the research also includeNot all students realize the importance of believing in effort.Students can learn to change their beliefs to an emphasis on effort.
21 Effective RewardsReward is most effective when it is contingent on the attainment of some standard of performance (Wiersma, 1992, and Cameron and Pierce, 1994).PRESENTERProviding RecognitionGeneralizations from the research also includeRewards do not necessarily have a negative effect on intrinsic motivation.Reward is most effective when it is contingent on the attainment of some standard of performance.Abstract symbolic recognition is more effective than tangible rewards.
22 Homework and PracticeHomework and practice are ways of extending the school day and providing students with opportunities to refine and extend their knowledge.Teachers can use both of these practices as powerful instructional tools.PRESENTERHomeworkGeneralizations from the research also includeThe amount of homework assigned to students should be different from elementary to high school.Parent involvement in homework should be kept to a minimum.“While it is certainly legitimate to inform parents of the homework assigned to their children, it does not seem advisable to have parents help their children with this homework.”“Specifically, many studies show minimal and even negative effects when parents are asked to help student with homework. (Classroom Instruction that Works).”
23 HomeworkThe amount of homework assigned to students should be different from elementary to middle school to high school. Rule of thumb: 10 minutes a night per grade level.Parent involvement in homework should be kept at a minimum.The purpose of homework should be identified and articulated.If homework is assigned, students should receive comments on it.Homework policies should be established.PRESENTERPurposes of HomeworkSource: No Child Left Behind (website); Homework Tips for ParentsPractice homework is meant to reinforce learning and help students master specific skills.Preparation homework introduces material presented in future lessons. These assignments aim to help students learn new material when it is covered in class.Extension homework asks students to apply skills they already have in new situations.Integration homework requires the students to apply many different skills to a large task, such as book reports, science projects, and creative writing.
24 PracticeMastering a skill requires a fair amount of focused practice (Anderson, J.R., 1995; Newell & Rosenbloom, 1981).PRESENTERGeneralizations from the research also includeWhile practicing, students should adapt and shape what they have learned.Recommendations for classroom practice1. Charting Accuracy and Speed2. Focused Practice3. Conceptual understanding
25 Nonlinguistic Representations A variety of activities produce nonlinguistic representations Creating graphic representationsMaking physical modelsGenerating mental picturesDrawing pictures and pictographsEngaging in kinesthetic activityPRESENTERAbove are generalizations from the research and also includeNonlinguistic representation should elaborate on knowledge.One of the best ways to learn a new word is to associate an image with it.Using nonlinguistic representations help students represent the knowledge they are learning throughGraphic organizers,Pictographic representation,Mental images,Physical models, andKinesthetic representation
26 Cooperative Learning Benefits Positive interdependence Face-to-face promotes interactionIndividual and group accountabilityInterpersonal and small group skillsGroup processing(David Johnson and Roger Johnson, 1999).PRESENTERCooperative LearningGeneralizations from the research also includeOrganizing groups based on ability levels should be done sparingly.Cooperative groups should be kept rather small in size.Cooperative learning should be applied consistently and systemically, but not overused.
27 Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback “Providing students with specific information about their standing in terms of particular objectives increased their achievement by 37 percentile points.The most powerful single modification that enhances achievement is feedback. The simplest prescription for improving education must be “dollops of feedback”.(Hattie, 1992, p. 9)PRESENTERSetting ObjectivesGeneralizations from the research also includeInstructional goals narrow students’ focus.Instructional goals should not be too specific.Students should be encouraged to personalize the teacher’s goals.Setting Objectives Recommendations for Classroom PracticeSet objectives that are not too specific.Personalize objectives for students.Communicate objectives to parents.Negotiate contracts.Providing FeedbackGeneralizations from the research includeFeedback should be “corrective” in nature.Feedback should be timelyFeedback should be specific to a curriculum.Students can effectively provide their own feedback.
28 When students know what they are learning, their performance, on average, has been shown to be 27 percentile points higher than students who do not know what they are learning.PRESENTERThese are generalizations from the research.
29 Generating and Testing Hypotheses Using a variety of structured tasks to guide students through generating and testing hypothesesSystems analysisProblem solvingHistorical investigationInventionExperimental inquiryDecision makingPRESENTERSystem Analysis – Analyzing the parts of a system and the manner in which they interact.Problem Solving – Overcoming constraints or limiting conditions that are in the way of pursuing goalsHistorical Investigation – Identifying and resolving issues about which there are confusions or contradictions.Invention – Developing unique products or processes that fulfill perceived needs.Experimental Inquiry – Generating and testing explanations of observed phenomena.Decision Making – Generating and applying criteria to select from among seemingly equal alternatives.Generating and Testing HypothesesGeneralizations from the research include:Hypothesis generation and testing can be approached in a more inductive or deductive manner.Teachers should ask students to clearly explain their hypotheses and their conclusions.
30 Cues, Questions, and Advance Organizers Cues and questions should focus on what is important as opposed to what is unusual.“Higher level” questions produce deeper learning than “lower level” questions.“Waiting” briefly before accepting responses from students has the effect of increasing the depth of students’ answers (Rowe, 1974).PRESENTERThese are generalizations from the research.
31 QuestionsQuestions are effective learning tools when asked before, during and after a learning experience.PRESENTERUsing Cues and QuestionsGeneralizations from the research includeCues and questions should focus on what is important, as opposed to what is unusual.“Higher level” questions produce deeper learning than “lower level” questions.
32 Cues are straightforward ways of activating prior knowledge. Share information on slide with participants.
33 Advance OrganizersAdvance organizers should focus on what is important, as opposed to what is unusual.“Higher level” advance organizers produce deeper learning than the “lower level” advance organizers.PRESENTERThese are generalizations from the research.Word sort and short articles are provided in presenter’s packet.Word sort is an example of a graphic organizer used to introduce a direct vocabulary instruction and is also used as a pre-reading strategy.
34 Different types of advance organizers produce different results. Advance organizers are most useful with information that is not well organized.Different types of advance organizers produce different results.Share information on slide with participants
35 Getting the Full Meaning Students often know how to read, they just don’t use (or know how to use) effective strategies to get the full meaning from the text they read.Share information on slide with participants.
36 Implementation of Strategies Only one or two strategies should be selected for initial implementationDISCUSSION POINT:Which strategy of the nine you have just studied would be the one you would select for implementation in your district and why?PRESENTERTo avoid overwhelming teachers and administrators, high performing districts focus initial implementation of strategies on one or two strategies. Once teachers are comfortable and can effectively use the selected strategies, the district can then provide additional professional development and support to help teachers expand their repertoire.Turn to a partner and discuss the following question:Which strategy of the nine you have just studied would be the one you would select for implementation in your district and why?[Give two or three minutes for partners to discuss, then ask a few participants to share.]
37 Who should implement?Implementation of one or two selected strategies could begin with--an entire school--designated grade levels--a particular content areaDISCUSSION POINT:Refer to the strategy you selected from the the previous discussion. In your district, where would you begin implementation of the strategy?PRESENTERBefore implementation of any new strategy begins, district leaders will have some decisions to make about how implementation will occur. For example, will selected strategies be implemented by all teachers in one school (or a selected number of schools). Will implementation begin only with certain grade levels or with teachers in a specific content area?Turn to your partner again and discuss the following question. Refer to the strategy you selected from the previous discussion:In your district, where would you begin implementation of the strategy?[Give two or three minutes for partners to discuss, then ask a few participants to share.]
38 How will implementation be supported? In high performing school systems, quality professional development, support and monitoring systems related to high yield instructional strategies are a priority.DISCUSSION POINT:As new strategies are implemented, how will your district support and monitor teachers?PRESENTERWhen high yield instructional strategies are being implemented, high performing school districts make every aspect of implementation a priority, which includesthe professional development that introduces the strategies,the systems that help to support teachers as they try new strategies, andthe monitoring systems that allow administrators to be aware of how well teachers are implementing new strategies.Let’s consider as a whole group the following question:As new strategies are implemented, how will your district support and monitor teachers?[Lead a whole group discussion around the question on the slide. If participants don’t mention support structures such as study groups and coaches, insert those into the conversation. Participants may also mention monitoring structures such as classroom walkthroughs.]
40 Primary SourceMarzano, R., Pickering, D. and Pollock, J. (2001). Classroom Instruction that Works – Research-based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement. Alexandria, VA: Association of Supervision and Curriculum Development.