Presentation on theme: "An Overview and Application of Classroom Instruction That Works Marzano’s Research-based High Yield Strategies."— Presentation transcript:
An Overview and Application of Classroom Instruction That Works Marzano’s Research-based High Yield Strategies
Relating research to practice “High yield” strategies are familiar strategies Research shows nine clusters of strategies that make a real difference Not a silver bullet, still relies on the art of teaching
Elements of effective pedagogy Carefully selected instructional strategies Management techniques Curriculum design
Objective: Teachers will review the nine high yield strategies identified in Marzano’s research by Completing a note-collection organizer in order to Incorporate the strategies to improve the effectiveness of a lesson or unit
A quick review of the Big 9 Cautions: May use one or more in combination Some more appropriately used before, during, or after a unit of instruction Some are more appropriate depending on the learning style of the students Some are more suited to specific types of knowledge
1. Identifying Similarities and Differences Comparing Classifying Metaphors Analogies Can be: Teacher directed Student directed Graphic organizers
Try one: Instructional strategies are to teachers as _______________ are to ___________________________
2. Summarizing and Note- taking Summarizing: Make determinations about what is important: translate, synthesize, delete, substitute, keep Rule-based strategy Summary frames Reciprocal teaching Note-taking: avoid verbatim, consider them a work in progress, take lots of notes and use them as a study guide Teacher prepared notes Formats for notes
Reflection: How did you learn to summarize and take notes? Who is responsible for teaching students the skills involved in summarizing and note-taking? What are your expectations for your students?
3. Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition Reinforcing effort: Creating positive attitudes, beliefs, and pride Providing recognition: abstract, symbolic recognition is more effective than tangible rewards especially if contingent on achieving a challenging standard
Discussion: How does this strategy relate to the school mission of personalization and climate? Is this a classroom level issue or a school issue? Do you agree that students value non- tangible rewards?
4. Homework and Practice Homework: Minimal parent involvement, purpose identified and articulated, always commented on Practice: mastering a new skill take focused practice and encoding by students
Activity: Draft an rough outline of a letter to students and parents about your homework policy that includes Amount of homework expected Purposes of homework Consider a student taking 6-7 courses with similar expectations on them as yours
5. Nonlinguistic Representations Graphic representations Making physical models Generating mental pictures Drawing pictures and pictographs Engaging in kinesthetic activity
Discussion: How has textbook design evolved in the last ten years to address the importance of nonlinguistic representations? Do we explicitly teach our students effective strategies to access these features?
6. Cooperative Learning Positive interdependence Face-to-face interaction Individual and group accountability Interpersonal and small group skills Group processing
Discussion: What is “messy” about cooperative learning? What management hints would you have for a colleague to make cooperative activities effective?
7. Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback Setting objectives: goals should provide a focus and filter and be personalized by student Feedback: corrective in nature, timely, specific to a criterion, self-reflective
Discussion How is this type of objective worse than no objective at all: “Today students will review and practice for a test by reading.” Write an lesson objective that provides Clarity Specificity Flexibility
8. Generating and Testing Hypotheses Largely deductive Students should be able to explain the thought process in hypothesis and conclusions
Content check: What is a topic in your curriculum that would be appropriate for generating a hypothesis? Why is it important for students to explain their hypothesis?
9. Cues, Questions, and Advance Organizers Cues and Questions: Activating prior knowledge Draw on schema Visualization Distinguish between what is important and what is unusual Wait time Mental set/pre-questioning
Strategies menu activity Review the list of instructional strategies Think about your teaching style and dominant preferences Select five strategies that represent your teaching style Create a pie chart that estimates the amount of time that you utilize each strategy you may have one “slice” for “other”
Processing Given compelling research that some strategies are more effective than others: How would you like to change your chart? Which strategies have the most promise for you personally given Your content Your teaching style/preferences Your students’ style/preference
Reviewing the Research What does the research say? What is compelling? Convincing? What resonates? Did anything change your perspective?
Read the research & theory Similarities and differences p.14 Summarizing p.30, note-taking p.43 Reinforcing effort p.50, recognition p.53 Homework p.61, practice p.66 Nonlinguistic representations p.73 Cooperative learning p.85 Objectives p.93, feedback p.96 Generating hypotheses p.104 Cues & questions p.112, organizers p.117
Protocol for reading Groups of 3-4 Each member individually skims section assigned (attention to bold print, numbered items, graphs, charts) Each member individually selects one compelling sentence or phrase that, for them, captures the spirit or theme of the section. Each member gets one minute or less to share the phrase selected. Comment or elaboration by presenter optional. Other group members remain silent: no comment, agreement, or disagreement.
Using the strategies in planning For use at beginning: Setting objectives Generating hypotheses Questions, cues, advance organizers
Using the strategies in planning For use during: Similarities and differences Note-taking and summarizing Practice Reinforcing effort Nonlinguistic representations Testing hypotheses Questions, cues, organizers Cooperative learning Providing feedback
Using the strategies in planning For use at the end: Summarizing Similarities and differences Reinforcing effort and providing recognition Providing feedback Homework
Application Review one of your own lessons or units. To what extent do you plan for and use the high yield strategies discussed? What changes would you make? What would you add to the plan? NORMAL, NATURAL, APPROPRIATE
Wrap up How has your knowledge changed as a result of the information shared and processed today? How will your practice change as a result of new information or a new way of thinking about familiar strategies?