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Solid State Detectors- 3 T. Bowcock 2 Schedule 1Position Sensors 2Principles of Operation of Solid State Detectors 3Techniques for High Performance Operation.

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Presentation on theme: "Solid State Detectors- 3 T. Bowcock 2 Schedule 1Position Sensors 2Principles of Operation of Solid State Detectors 3Techniques for High Performance Operation."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Solid State Detectors- 3 T. Bowcock

3 2 Schedule 1Position Sensors 2Principles of Operation of Solid State Detectors 3Techniques for High Performance Operation 4Environmental Design 5Measurement of time 6New Detector Technologies

4 3 Techniques for High Performance Operation Strip Detectors –Design and Fabrication Issues What to avoid!

5 4 Review... In the p-strip in n-bulk (“p-in-n”) detectors V dep =100V Energy to create electron hole pair is –3.6eV ( not 1.1eV-why? ) Average energy lost/  m –39keV (108eh/  m) Al Si -V + -

6 5 Drift Electric field in Depleted region linear –300  m detector –at 100V E=3.0keV/cm Diffusion/Drift by multiple collisions Takes 7ns for e’s, 20ns for holes Higher diffusion at low temps!

7 6 Ballistic Deficit Charge lost is known as the ballistic deficit Collection time

8 7 Strip Pitch and Readout Pitch and resolution Select it: d Single strip has d/  12 d/10

9 8 Choosing the Pitch Why not make it infinitely small –transverse diffusion microns –construction –readout electronics! Readout pitch –not necessarily the same as diode pitch (cost$$$) 75  m readout (25  m diode)

10 9 Intermediate Strips Work by capacitive coupling –induced current/charge is that seen by the electrons and holes (not a post-facto charge sharing!) Why no broader strips ? –Interstrip capacitance <1pF Need field map!

11 10 Intermediate Strips? Loose signal An option if –limited by resources –little noise in electronics (slow e’s) Optimal choice is –readout each strip pitch and width evaluated by FEA –pitch between 20 microns and 100 microns

12 11 Performance 50  m with intermediate strip 25  m readout

13 12 Resolution Test your resolution –series of particles of known position testbeam telescope cosmic telescope longwavelength laser

14 13 Checking Resolution Tests –laser problems? transparancy –cosmics slower –testbeam expensive labour intensive Optical fiber Focus to 5  m 1064nm Si transparent

15 14 Two Track Resolution Reconstruction position as a function of proximity of one track to another

16 15 Occupancy Best to reduce occupancy –1% considered the benchmark 10% too high Reduce the length of strips –usually about 6cm –reduce to 1cm for example

17 16 AC Coupling Revisited  =0.34pF/cm 200nm oxide –10pF/cm Greater than Interstrip capacitance Electronics at ground!

18 Double Sided Needs AC coupling! Correlation of signals Strips can run opposite directions –2D style r/o + 0V -V

19 18 Double Sided Detector Would like electronics at one end Can get correlated measurement (E) giving x/y measurement Reduces fakes Punchthrough

20 19 Double Metal Add another routing layer more processing via Expense can double Built in stresses in SiO2 can warp Si wafer badly

21 20 Double Metal Can also use to route on single sided detectors

22 21 Strips

23 22 Example of Double Metal Detectors LHCb prototypes

24 23 Bond Pads Structure you will often see Typically 80 by 200 microns

25 24 n-strip detectors We can make single sided n-strip detectors (note depletion!)

26 25 Field Plates MOS structures

27 26 p-stops Individual p-stops

28 27 Operating Voltage High (overvoltage is desirable) –250V –reduced ballistic deficit BUT –introduces very high field regions? Avalanche will set in if field exceeds 30V/m

29 28 Analysis of structure

30 29 Electric Field Sample field map

31 30 Guard Rings Reduce fields at edge

32 31 Micro-Discharges Discharges may be seen as in increase in the noise with voltage

33 32 Si Choices Resistivity n-type –p-strips –n-strips –double sided p-type Crystal orientation

34 33 Benchmark measures Charge Collection Efficiency Partial Depletion Ballistic Deficit

35 34 Fabrication Control of all steps critical Of special interest –resistor values –implantation –oxide quality for breakdown –quality of lithography

36 35 Quality Assurance Job of the physicist is to measure all the key parameters of the detectors –IV and CV –interstrip capacitance –resistor values –lightspot response

37 36 Readout Chain

38 37 F/E Electronics Binary vs Analog Amplifier Characteristics –rise time and falltime –undershoot Digital Performance –pipeline & logic Noise

39 38 Hybrid Design

40 39 Noise Hybrid is often a source of noise –bad grounding for electronics –bad grounding for supplies to detector –sensor,analog and digital all connected The detector, f/e electronics and the hybrid should be regarded as one unit or MODULE

41 40 Module and Mounting

42 41 Material Budget Ideally should be as low as possible –avoid high mass materials gold Good detector about 1% of a radiation length

43 42 Example: DELPHI barrel

44 43 Offline Analysis Can give improvement in resolution d w x R L Only true if charge uniform and if the width of the cluster matches the strip width In general we have a Gaussian distribution of width determined by the diffusion coefficient (for normal incidence)

45 44 Offline Corrections for the angle of the track and the known (measured) charge sharing can give great improvement –20 to 30% in the case of 25 microns pitch detectors Good software must accompany good hardware Removal of deltas

46 45 7 things to avoid Picking the wrong technology Picking the wrong manufacturer($) Not enough Quality Control Bad design limiting operation Noise in system Treating sensor and hybrid separately Bad analysis

47 46 Summary We have all the elements now to think about real detectors in real environments –design issues –noise problems See how we design a detector for LHCb


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