Presentation on theme: "1 While you’re waiting… Remember back to an incident of aggression in your school setting…. verbal, physical, …. Remember back to an incident of aggression."— Presentation transcript:
1 While you’re waiting… Remember back to an incident of aggression in your school setting…. verbal, physical, …. Remember back to an incident of aggression in your school setting…. verbal, physical, …. -Can you identify the reason or purpose behind the aggressive act? -If adults reacted, were their attempts to manage the situation productive? -Could this incident have been prevented? If so, how so?
2 When push comes to shove: Today’s Agenda 1. Understanding & categorizing aggressive actions for incident reports, FBA, Manifestation Determination, &/or Police Report for incident reports, FBA, Manifestation Determination, &/or Police Report 2. Intervening in student versus student incidents 3. Handling aggression directed at us 4. School-based programs & interventions for promoting a respectful, cooperative, & safe environment.
3 Volcan Arenal (Costa Rica)
4 Volcan Arenal.
5 Sulfur Cloud.
6 Ah-Ah Lava
7 Letting off some steam
8 Our Goal
9 Getting in Close
10 End of Travelogue.
11 How do you tell a male chromosome from a female chromosome? Aggression peaks at around 2-3 years of age, suggesting genetic etiology (Trembly, 2000) Guo (2008) studied 20,000 7 th to 12 th graders. –“Aggression genes” (3 of them) in 1% of population –Increased likelihood of aggression –Triggered by ? Stress Family dysfunction School failure Social failure –One group, had risk reduced to nil by regular family dinners. Conclusion: A feeling of belonging counteracts genetic predisposition so that it doesn’t present. G. Guo in American Sociological Review (mid-July, 2008)
12 Home Precursors to In-School Violence? Violence becomes child’s default “coping skills” due to: –Aggression modeled by family members –Harsh, inconsistent punishment (warm relationship with one parent can mediate effects) –More commands & demands than explaining & instructing Youngster’s aggressive (re) actions have brought benefits due to lack of supervision, correction, & teaching by elders. Watching violent media (short term effects, some kids more susceptible) Limited or inappropriate interaction (social) skills with peers & adults. Dodge 1993; Met. Life 1999; Walker, Colvin & Ramsey, 1995; Rosemond, 1998; Deater-Deckard, Dodge, Bates, & Pettit, 1996; Resnick et al., 1997; Patterson, 1982; Biglan, Lewis, Hops, 1990;
13 Low SES “Cultural Markers” Organized versus Disorganized lower class –Course language –Greater use of physical, inconsistent punishment –Less guidance (At risk: 10% Black youth “zero parented ” Downey, 93 ) Research: Haberman & Schreiber-Dill (Kappa Delta Pi Record, summer 1995) Surveyed low income White & Hispanic middle schoolers Results: Surveyed low income White & Hispanic middle schoolers Results: Fighting viewed as natural & expected. Swift violent revenge viewed as acceptable response to an insult at any level… “She looked at me funny.” “He ranked my mama.” “They threatened to kill me.” Not right to bring in adult figures to prevent violence Fighting in school should not be punished.
14 Not Just Lower Income Homes Cartoonist & source unknown
15 2 General Types of Aggression Reasoned (goal oriented, premeditated) –“Bloods” candidate slices stranger’s face to “belong” –Bully plans to intercept a victim –OTHERS? Reactive: (overcome by emotion, “spontaneous”) –ADHD kid has energy blocked & pushes other –Academically frustrated kid explodes –Outburst due to disappointment with performance –Abused kid with “belonging” issues simmering just below the surface attacks a beloved teacher who imposed restrictions –OTHERS? What is meant by:What is meant by: “ Anger is a secondary emotion.”? “ Anger is a secondary emotion.”?
16 Intentions & “Hidden” Messages Instrumental (“I want that.”) Dominance (“I’m the alpha brute.”) Escape and/or protection of self & others (“I’m in a bad situation & need to get out.”) Retaliation (“You’ll pay for what you’ve done.”) Psychopathology (“My thought processes are disordered”) Belonging (“I want to be accepted.”) Examples of each that you’ve witnessed? Examples of each that you’ve witnessed?
17 No Matter What Type or Reason There’s always a message being sent (we just have to decode it for FBA) Channels for conveying that aggressive message: Language: The psyche (mind, spirit, soul) receives harm Physical: The body receives harm Combined
18 Language (Verbal) Which forms does it take ? Harsh & offensive words Insults – –Level 1: Physical characteristics Examples ? – –Level 2: Home, Heart & Hearth Examples ? Depreciation of: Family Race Personal possessions (religious symbol, gift from special person) – –Level 3: Defiles your ability to: Be fair & make non-biased decisions Statements like ? Teach Statements such as ? Threats of physical attack
19 Language (non-oral)? Written aggression – –Typed or handwritten letters – –Text messages – – s & Cyber bullying My space, Facebook Non-verbal gestures – –Face ( Such as ?) – –Body ( Such as ?)
20 Physical (at different levels) From to Combined Verbal & physical assault in same incident –Simultaneous –Interspersed
21 Foci of Aggression Directed toward… ? SelfOthersAnimalsObjects Caption: “Man presents with palmar angulation after hitting object with closed fist.”
22 Observe the students in the video clips. In each instance, is it “aggression”? If so, which descriptors apply? Intent/Purpose/Cause: –Communication –Release for emotions –Instrumental (to attain a goal) –Dominance –Escape and/or protection –Retaliation Language, Physical, Combined? Focus? Click to skip over written situs Click to skip over written situs Click to skip over written situs
23 Quiz: Focus, Category, Intent ? An autistic child bites her hand when the teacher approaches. Which aspects apply ? Intent/Purpose/Cause: –Communication –Release for emotions –Instrumental (to attain a goal) –Dominance –Escape and/or protection –Retaliation Language, Physical, Combined? Focus?
24 Talking with another, student walks into door frame while exiting room. Turns & pushes another for “pushing” her. Intent/Purpose/Cause: –Communication –Release for emotions –Instrumental (to attain a goal) –Dominance –Escape and/or protection –Retaliation Language, Physical, Combined? Focus?
25 Upon receiving a paper with a poor grade, the student tears it up & throws it on the floor. When told to pick it up, he says “I ain’t picking up your f—in’ test. I ain’t takin’ any more of your m_ther-f---in’ tests until you learn how to teach. You stink. No one understands what you’re saying and you put us all to f—kin’ sleep”. Intent/Purpose/Cause: –Communication –Release for emotions –Instrumental (to attain a goal) –Dominance –Escape and/or protection –Retaliation Language, Physical, Combined? Focus?
26 A teacher pleads with non-motivated student to start the task. After several attempts to “reason” with the student, & receiving various “brush off” responses, the student spews foul words with a loud voice. Intent/Purpose/Cause: –Communication –Release for emotions –Instrumental (to attain a goal) –Dominance –Escape and/or protection –Retaliation Language, Physical, Combined? Focus?
27 A student carries out a long-planned event, bringing weapons to school & using them in attack that kills & wounds others before he takes his own life. Intent/Purpose/Cause: –Communication –Release for emotions –Instrumental (to attain a goal) –Dominance –Escape and/or protection –Retaliation Language, Physical, Combined? Focus?
28 Two students engage in “the dozens”. Suddenly, one throws punches at the other when one of the “mother insults” hits a psychological soft spot. Intent/Purpose/Cause: –Communication –Release for emotions –Instrumental (to attain a goal) –Dominance –Escape and/or protection –Retaliation Language, Physical, Combined? Focus?
29 Pele’ in the Schools
30 Sign on Kaho`olawe (Kilauea)
31 How Schools & Teachers Place Themselves At Risk for Aggression: The Usual Suspects ^ Which factors have been identified in research (Walker, Rutter) as correlating with violence in the school? –Low emphasis of teachers on academic work –Low rates of (effective) praise –Little emphasis on individual responsibility –High student-teacher ratio –High-risk children clustered with high density of other high-risk students –Rejecting & non-supportive responses from teachers –Poor student-teacher relationships –Poor classroom management skills –A spiraling pattern of child misbehavior & teacher reactivity.
32 Why the Problems? Most educators aren’t trained in: In what areas could you have used more training ? –Positive or instructional behavior management –Creating a sense of class community –Connecting interpersonally with kids who engage in inappropriate and/or coercive actions –De-escalating emerging crises –Conflict resolution –Problem solving procedures (click) Problem solving procedures Problem solving procedures –Avoiding “contagion of behavior” (adopting the student’s demeanor) Dick Armey: “You can’t get ahead if you’re getting even.”
33 Eldfell, Iceland (1973).
34 What do I do when… Sense problems Others are fighting I’m the target of aggression –The person is poised to strike –I am under attack The incident is over To packet Fight!!!
35 Fuel on the Fire: Avoid these words… ^ NeverAlwaysCan’tWon’tDon’t Should, Shouldn’t …& other absolutes And “Mind Reading” –“…On purpose” –“…because you wanted to…”.
36 Words that De-es ca la te ^ Maybe, Perhaps Sometimes, Once-in-awhile What if…, Consider this… Let’s check whether we can… I wonder if… I’ll consider it. No guarantees, but I’ll… Help me understand why you’re feelin’ this way. And other words & phrases that exude –Optimism –Consideration –Wisdom.
37 If we have the time… David cuts in line After the video clip ends, David pushes the teacher and says “ C’mon! Make me go to the end of the line.” Click here for video Click here for video Tony’s Art Criticism –Tony gets up from seat to view art of others. Click here for video Click here for video
38 Teacher behaviors associated with improved classroom behavior ^ High levels of praise & social reinforcement Proactive strategies –preparing kids for transitions –setting clear, predictable rules Effective use of short, clear commands, warnings, reminders, & distractions Reinforcement systems for appropriate social behavior; team-based rewards Mild, but consistent response costs for aggression Direct instruction in appropriate social & classroom behavior, problem-solving, & self-management skills.
39 Principles of Schools that Effectively Deal with Violence Whatever is a crime outside of school is a crime inside of school. Violence is not viewed merely as an intrusion on the school program. It’s prevention becomes part of the school program. The process of discipline is important –Informed –Personal and respectful –Flexible –Instructional rather than merely punitive.
40 Programmatic Preventions & Interventions: 3 Levels (Waite, 1995) ^ Level 1: All students What should be in place ? (For fill-in-the-blanks & in addition to ones in your handout) –Staff training in (followed by implementation): How to present interesting & pertinent instruction Positive & proactive behavior management (Phrasing & approach, structure, supportive strategies) Teaching “Character Education/Values Education” (infused into academic lessons & also taught directly) School-wide behavior management system Violence prevention & response Crisis intervention (perhaps only individuals serving in this capacity) –Committee formed to identify violence sources & forms –Violence & threat management policies developed –Establish ways for students to anonymously report possible aggression or threats to school safety –Develop a sense of pride & community in the school * How is this camaraderie promoted in your schools ?
41 Level 2: Some students ^ Provide specialized services & supports for about 10-15% of the student body. Special ed & other support services Special ed & other support services mentorship by adult or older student mentorship by adult or older student peer mediation peer mediation –Teach ‘em what they don’t know. –Practice what they don’t do (yet) What are some of the curricular programs for teaching alternative behaviors ? –Social skills instruction –Conflict resolution training –Anger management/Aggression replacement training –Self-esteem building (authentic self esteem) –Problem-solving strategies Click here to view steps & teacher modeling Click here to view steps & teacher modeling Click here to view steps & teacher modeling –Assertiveness training –Emotional language instruction.
42 Level 3: Few students ^ This level requires additional equipment & personnel to deter violence from a few students & protect the rest of the student body. Such as? Magnetometers (metal detectors) Police liaison & gang/drug intervention officers Security cameras (bus & hallways, certain classrooms) Providing safe pathways to school for others Expel them ! (to friendlier places) with: –Caring staff trained & skilled in: Building relationships with difficult youngsters Cognitive-behavioral & Psycho-Educational interventions Special ed. academic intervention Curriculum for teaching social skills, anger management, reattribution, etc. (& expel teachers who are disrespectful, aggressive, & unwilling to “re-tool”) –Lower student-teacher ratio.
43 More Reactions to Level 3 Students My name is Mr. Collins. I’ll be teaching you English literature, and I’m armed. I’ll be teaching you English literature, and I’m armed.
44 In a crisis situation, remember….
45 The following slides are not part of the usual staff development sessions, but they are included as they may be of some use to you and your colleagues. Dr. Mac
46 Problem Solving Gordon’s 6 (+1) Identify the problem (Already done early in your get-together… see next slide) next slidenext slide Brainstorm solutions Discuss benefits & problems in each one Select one for use Role play its use (The +1) (Addition by McIntyre) Place into practice (with “surprise quizzes”) ~ Meet again to evaluate outcome & tweak. Return to Level 2 slideReturn to Level 2 slide Go to level 3 slide Go to level 3 slide Return to Level 2 slideGo to level 3 slide
47 Model the Use of Problem Solving Arrange for the two of you to be in the same area & pretend to have a problem similar to that of the student. Teacher: (slams palm on desk) “Ooh no. No. No. No.” Student: “What’s wrong?” Teacher: “Oh…, I’ve been given an order by my supervisor that I don’t want to follow because: –I–I–I–I think it’s the wrong way to do things.” –I–I–I–I don’t like the nasty way I was told to do it.” –I–I–I–I don’t think that I have the skill to do it well.” –I–I–I–I’m not in the mood for this sort of thing right now.” (Use the reason(s) that are recurrent for the often-defiant kid.)
48 3 Parts of an “I message” When (describe what happened without using “you”) I feel (identify feelings) I would like (make a request) Show Intervention Central Video Show Intervention Central Video Return to the Intent/Reason slide Return to the Intent/Reason slide
49 Click for flashdriveClick for flashdrive avi Click for flashdrive
50 AN ACTIVITY I noticed a distraught/upset student (who I knew well from last year) as s/he ran into the bathroom. I approached the restroom doorway and entered. The two of us were the only ones in the lavatory. S/he yelled "Stay away from me or you'll be eating tile" (I'd be thrown down to the floor). This student has a reputation for being explosive and sometimes violent, but the two of us have had a friendly and cordial relationship (with some periodic strife). At that point I realized that a few other students were gathering outside the doorway to watch what was happening (the door was propped open with a wooden wedge). * *Describe what you thought about or actually did before entering the bathroom, and what you did in this situation to defuse the emotionally charged pupil.
51 Group Activity How Do We Counter School Violence & Re-Educate Aggressive Youngsters? Groups: Please list suggestions for the strategy headings found below. 1. How could we change the physical appearance of our building to counter violence, support cooperation, build a sense of community, make all kids feel welcome within, etc. 2. What things could we do to accomplish the tasks in #1 that aren't involved in changing the look of the building? 3. What curricula should we have available to increase social competence in "at risk" and aggressive youngsters? 4. What supports might be offered to the families of these youngsters? (By the school or other agencies) 5. How can we become a positive place in the eyes of the surrounding. community so that they defend and support us? 6. What are some staff development session topics that would increase the ability of educators and staff to reduce aggression in certain students, and the school at large? 7. Other thoughts:
52 Zero tolerance = Zero thinking BD teachers most likely to be working with chronically aggressive youth, but also most likely to have the personality & skills to help these youngsters change for the better. Expel teachers who are disrespectful, aggressive themselves, & unwilling to “re-tool” Diane Gordon (1990, The justice juggernaut, Rutgers Univ. Press) documented American tendency to blame behaviors due to complex social problems on personal defects, and recommending punitive responses. New York City schools have the 9 th largest police force in the nation.
54 This slide show was developed by: Tom McIntyre Coordinator of the graduate program in behavior disorders Department of Special Education Hunter College New York, NY 1021