Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 8 Early Childhood: Physical Development. Learning Outcomes LO1 Describe patterns of growth in early childhood. LO2 Describe development of motor."— Presentation transcript:
Growth Patterns Early Childhood / Preschool Years –Ages years –Physical growth becomes slower –Children become leaner and taller Both boys & girls grow about 2-3 inches per year And gain about lbs per year Boys overall tend to become slightly taller and heavier. Both begin to look more like smaller adults than infants. –Motor skills develop Becoming stronger, faster, and better coordinated
Figure 8.1 – Growth Curves for Height and Weight, Ages 2 to 6 Years
Development of the Brain The Brain grows faster than rest of body during the Early Developmental Years. –Visual skills are also facilitated by brain development. Enables learning to read By ages 4-7 most children experience increase in ability to focus on schoolwork.
Development of the Brain Right-Brain * Left-Brain –Left Hemisphere functions Logical analysis, problem-solving, language, computation –Right Hemisphere functions Usually superior in visual/spatial functions, aesthetic and emotional responses, and understanding metaphors –But brain functions are not completely separated as to hemisphere. Children are neither Right-Brained nor Left-Brained –The functions of both hemispheres overlap via the corpus callosum (the nerve fibers connecting the hemispheres).
Development of the Brain Plasticity of the Brain –Refers to the ability to compensate for injuries to the brain –Plasticity is greatest about age 2 years then gradually declines –“Sprouting” (growth of new dendrites) and redundancy of neural connections enable plasticity –If adults suffer damage causing loss of speech, they may not recover it, but preschoolers may regain functions.
Motor Development Gross Motor Skills –Involve the large muscles used in locomotion Preschoolers average 25 hrs a week in large muscle activity Motor activity slows after age 2-3 –Acquired through self-teaching and observing other children Imitation of peers more important than adult instruction at this age. Rough-and-Tumble play helps develop physical and social skills. –Boys and girls are similar Boys show advantage in throwing and kicking. Girls better at balance and precision.
Motor Development Gross Motor Skills, con’t –Individual differences larger than sex differences Children who have physically active parents are more active also. Twin studies also point to a genetic tendency for activity levels. –Experiences in infancy seem to have effect of development of advancing motor skills. Early crawlers do better in early childhood motor skills development.
Table 8.1 – Development of Gross Motor Skills in Early Childhood
Motor Development Fine Motor Skills –Involve the small muscles used in manipulation and coordination Control of wrists and fingers enable learning: –To hold a pencil –Dress themselves –Stack blocks –Tie shoelaces –Use zippers
Table 8.2 – Development of Fine Motor Skills in Early Childhood Note: The ages are averages; there are individual variations.
Motor Development Children’s Drawings –Development of drawing linked to motor and cognitive skills Age 2: scribbling begins –The building blocks of art –20 basic scribbles such as: »Vertical »Horizontal »Diagonal »Circular, curving, waving »Zigzagging lines »Dots »Etc.
Motor Development Children’s Drawings, con’t. –Overall: Early drawing tends to be symbolic of broad categories rather than specific themes. Between 3-5 they are more likely to draw first and name after. After 5 become able to draw object they have in mind. Also increase skills at copying figures
Figure 8.3 – Four Stages in Children’s Drawings
Motor Development Handedness –Hand preference Genetic Component –Both parents Right-Handed: 92% chance child will be also –Both parents Left-Handed: 50% chance child will be also Early establishment –2-3 months infants will hold items longer in one hand than the other –By 4 months will show a clear preference –7-11 months grasping with one hand or the other increases
Motor Development Handedness, con’t. –Left-handedness: once seen as a deficiency Disadvantages –Appears to be connected by language problems (dyslexia and stuttering) –Also health problems (high blood pressure and epilepsy) –And psychological disorders (schizophrenia and depression) Advantages –A disproportionately high percentage of math whizzes are left-handed (20% of highest scoring yr olds taking SAT) –Left-handed and ambidextrous people seem to have more success at athletic sports involving hand use (handball, fencing, boxing, etc. –Plus higher frequencies of left-handed people are found among (musicians, architects, and artists)
Nutrition Caloric Needs –4-6 year olds increase caloric needs to approx. 1,400 calories a day (opposed to about 1,000-1,300 at 1-3 yrs) –During 2nd - 3rd years appetite becomes erratic Taste Preferences –Early preference for sugar and salt increases with exposure. Many children eat too much sugar and salt. Parents serve as role models and should encourage eating healthy vegetables and fruits. –Beginning with tiny amounts 8-10 times a week to familiarize tastes to child
Health & Illness Major Illness –Chronic Illnesses Arthritis; Diabetes; Cerebral Palsy; Cystic Fibrosis Approx. 1/3 or 20 million children under 18 yrs suffer from a chronic illness –Major Illnesses Rubella (German Measles); Tetanus; Mumps; Whooping Cough; Diphtheria; Polio; Pneumonia; Tuberculosis In U.S. and other Industrialized Countries –Dramatically reduced due to widespread immunizations and development of antibiotics and other medications –Lead poisoning found in paint and water pipes can cause neurological damage in early childhood. In Developing Nations –8-9 million children die from major illnesses. –Air pollution causing respiratory infections: 1 death in 5 in children under 5 yrs –Diarrhea kills nearly 2 million due to unsafe water, poor sanitation, and hygiene.
Health & Illness Accidents –Cause more deaths in early childhood than the next 6 most frequent causes combined –Motor Vehicle Accidents: single most common cause of death in early childhood –Ratio by Sex: Boys most likely regardless of SES –By Socioeconomic Status (SES): Poor children are 2 times more likely to die in vehicular accidents. Poor children 5 times more likely to die from fires. High incidence attributed to living in dangerous housing and neighborhoods.
Sleep Normal Sleep –Hours Preschoolers: hours per 24 hr period –Pattern 9-10 hrs per night hours napping during day –Routine Typically includes: putting on PJs, brushing teeth, and being read a story Many youngsters also take a “transitional object” (favorite blanket or stuffed animal) to bed with them. –Resistance Many children typically resist going to bed and/or to sleep. Can be a problem for preschoolers since they tend to not make-up lost sleep
Table 8.3 Sleep Obtained by Children during a 24-Hour Period
Sleep Sleep Disorders –Sleep Terrors Usually begin in early childhood or early adolescence but are outgrown by late adolescence Sometimes associated with stress (moving, divorce, etc.) Occur during deep sleep Symptoms include sudden awakening accompanied by high heart and respiration rates, incoherent talking, and thrashing about Recovery includes child falling back to a more restful sleep If persistent or very severe, seek profession guidance.
Sleep Sleep Disorders, con’t. –Sleep Walking: Somnambulism Onset between ages 3-8 years Behaviors include going to bathroom, getting food from refrigerator, arranging toys, etc. and then returning to bed Cause: –Reflects immaturity of nervous system Myths: (all false) –Their eyes are closed; they will naturally avoid harm; they will become violent if awakened during an episode
Elimination Disorders Toilet Training –The process by which parents teach children to inhibit reflexive elimination of waste products. –Child’s maturity plays critical role in successful training. –Most U.S. children are toilet trained by age 3-4 years.
Elimination Disorders Enuresis –Failure to control the bladder –Classified as disorder if wetting is still evident at least twice a month past age 5-6 years –Night time occurrences: bed-wetting is more difficult to control 8-10% of children: 2 times more common in boys Occurs during deep sleep cycles –Causes Organic: immaturity of motor cortex in brain –Outcomes Usually outgrow problems by age 8 and almost always by teens
Elimination Disorders Encopresis –Lack of control over the bowels –More common among boys –1-2% of children age 7-8 experience continuing problems with bowel control. –Unlike bed-wetting more common at night, encopresis is more likely to occur during day –Causes: Physical: chronic constipation Psychological: following harsh punishment of toileting accidents especially in stressed/anxious children