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Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada11-1 Chapter 11: Physical Development in Middle Childhood 11.1 Growth of the Body 11.2 Motor Development MODULES
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada11-2 Middle childhood: the period of development between the ages of 7 and 11.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada Growth of the Body LEARNING OBJECTIVES Recognize how much children grow in middle childhood. Describe the nutritional needs of elementary school children and the best ways to approach malnutrition and obesity. State when children’s primary teeth begin to come in. Identify the vision problems common in school-age children.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada11-4 Physical Growth Growth continues at steady pace from the preschool years. Boys and girls about the same size most of these years until girls enter puberty in late elementary school. Ethnic differences are evident in children’s growth. Some short children may receive growth hormones, but this has negative effects.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada11-5 Average Growth in School- Age Children
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada11-6 Nutrition School-age children need to eat more than preschoolers. Children need to eat breakfast before school.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada11-7 Insert The Child Hunger and Education Program table
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada11-8 Obesity Obesity: the physical state of being 20 percent over ideal body weight, given a child’s age and height. Obesity affects self-esteem depending on the age and gender of the child. Parents need to be involved in the treatment of juvenile obesity.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada11-9 Obesity,Lifestyle and Genetics Warning to Couch Potatoes Heredity may also help set basal metabolic rate. Television advertising of tasty but fattening foods.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada11-10 Tooth Development Beginning at 5 or 6 years, loss of primary teeth occurs at a rate of 4 teeth per year. Fluoride in toothpaste and drinking water helps prevent tooth decay. Malocclusion can be corrected by braces.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada11-11 Vision and Hearing Growth of eustachian tube helps reduce incidence of ear infections (otitis media). Myopia occurs in approximately 25% of school-age children. Myopia usually emerges between 8 and 12 years. Both heredity and environment contribute to myopia.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada Motor Development LEARNING OBJECTIVES Describe how motor skills improve during the elementary school years and whether boys and girls differ in their motor skills. Identify whether Canadian children are physically fit. Discuss the benefits of participating in sports and the optimal circumstances for children to participate. Understand the kinds of accidents common in school-age children and how can they be prevented.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada11-13 Development of Motor Skills Improved motor skill due to increased size and strength (e.g., at 11 years can throw ball 3 times farther than at 6 years). Important role for the cerebellum as mediating between children’s motor movements, sensory perception and the precise timing necessary to carry out an activity such as kicking a ball.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada11-14 Gender Differences in Motor Skill Girls excel in fine motor skills and gross motor skills that require balance and flexibility. Boys excel in gross motor skills that require strength. Many gender differences due to attitudes about girls’ sports participation and physical fitness.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada11-15 Changing Motor Skills
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada11-16 Physical Fitness 51% of Canadian children are inactive. Many elementary schools in Canada do not include physical activity into the daily routine. Families can encourage fitness by going for a walk together.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada11-17 Participating in Sports Sports help children be physically fit, teach cognitive and social skills. Coaches should be positive and have realistic expectations.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada11-18 Accidents Because children in the middle years are more mobile and more independent, they’re at greater risk for injury than preschool children.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada11-19 Accidents Unintentional falls, car accidents (as passenger or pedestrian) and bike accidents are the most common causes of injury and death in persons under 20 years of age. Parents can help by being good role models (seat belts, bike helmets) and by being realistic about child’s abilities. Safety often the focus of community and school programs.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada11-20 Conclusions Physical growth enables advances in motor control. Fine motor skills improve as a result of greater dexterity. In effective programs for treating obesity, children and parents set eating and exercise goals and monitor progress towards these goals. Team sports are a good source of exercise and they promote motor development. Parents can help protect their children from accidents by being good role models, by insisting that their children use protective devices, and by not overestimating their children’s skills.
Physical Development in School-Age Children Physical Growth of the Body Development of Motor Skills Health Nutrition Safety.
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