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8th April :00-14:00 Examination: 14th July

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1 8th April 2013 10:00-14:00 Examination: 14th July
Year 12 Unit 1 Revision Day 8th April 2013 10:00-14:00 Examination: 14th July Groups of 5 on each table please!

2 Programme for the day: 10:00am- 11:15am: MLK and the Later Southern Campaigns Warm up knowledge quiz Terrific Timeline of change – knowledge check Presidents hall of fame Exam question planning Sample answers – how to achieve excellent technique 11:15am-11:30am: break 11:30am-12:00: MLK Northern Campaigns & fragmentation of the movement Knowledge check – MLK and northern campaigns Essay planning – Northern campaigns Knowledge check – why did the movement fragment in later 1960’s? Essay planning 12:00-12:20: Lunch 12:20-13:45: Black Power Knowledge check 13:45-14:00: Plenary Revision plan

3 MLK and the Later Southern Campaigns 1955-1968
Session 1 MLK and the Later Southern Campaigns

4 Warm up knowledge quiz You have 5 minutes to get all of the answers – prize for team with the most – no cheating 12 questions 8 images 20 marks in total

5 11 questions What legislation was passed in 1964 and what did it say?
Which President was in office when the 1965 voting rights act was passed? What was the name of the governor of Arkansas who ordered the National Guard to keep 9 black students out of Little Rock High School in 1957? Where was the first ‘sit-in’ held in 1960? In which city in Alabama in 1963 did racist police chief Eugene Bull Connor reacted violently to King’s demonstration gaining national attention for the civil rights movement and giving King’s leadership the spotlight, resulting in pressure on Kennedy to push a Civil Rights Bill forward What local organisation did MLK form to organised the bus boycott in 1956? What organisation was formed by MLK after the bus boycott which was specifically formed to address the problems in the South and provide an alternative direct, non-violent action to the litigation strategies of the NAACP? Which student- led movement was formed in 1961? Which campaign of is interpreted as largely a failure for King after he was seen to have given in to the authorities by compromising with the authorities and in the end, despite interstate terminal facilities being desegregated, the city closed parks, refused to desegregate schools, took the seats out of the library. It was also seen as a failure as it did not provoke federal involvement due to bad publicity of black violence In which Southern state did SNCC have their so called ‘finest hour’ in their freedom movement which culminated in the ‘Freedom Summer’ of 1964? How many of Selma’s 12,000 black population were registered to vote in 1965? Why was King and SCLC criticised by SNCC after this campaign in 1965 in the same city?

6 8 images – name the person and campaign
1 2 3 4 6 5 1. Jim Clark, Selma 1965, 2. Bus Boycott , Eugene Bull Connor Birmingham, Freedom Rides 1961, Little Rock 1957, 8 7

7 Terrific Timelines of Change – How well do you know your stuff?
Put the events in the correct order – write on to your A3 copy of the timeline Then code them Litigation (Legal Action), Direct Action, King (SCLC), CORE, SNCC, Presidential Then decide which ‘summary’ statements match with each event and annotate on the summary statements (you can add to your timeline in your own revision time)

8 James Meredith and University of Mississippi Freedom Rides Birmingham
Greensboro Sit Ins James Meredith and University of Mississippi Freedom Rides Birmingham Selma Civil Rights Act 2 March on Washington Civil Rights Act (1) Voting Rights Act Montgomery Bus Boycott Browder V Gayle The Albany Movement Little Rock Campaign Mississippi Freedom Summer 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68

9 Significant for demonstrating the economic power of the black community, showed the power of non-violent, direct protest, showed how white extremism helped increase black unity, brought king to forefront of movement and led to SCLC formation, churches in fight for equality, showed effectiveness of working through law courts. But immediate de jure success limited to that city only and only buses, 2. Prevented states from enforcing any bars to voting for any group 3. This was the district Court ruling that followed the Bus boycott in which segregation on Alabama Buses was declared unconstitutional 4. Initiated by 4 back college students in Greensboro . Led to 70,000 students joining in across the South, King followed rather than led, SNCC formed as a result 5. Resulted in Eisenhower claiming he had to honour his ‘inescapable’ responsibility and tried to rally nation with reference to Cold War, he sent in troops. Case showed hug resistance to Brown ruling, gained support from moderate white opinion in South who saw violence against the black students, led to 1958 Cooper V Aaron ruling, made black community aware that court ruling’s themselves would not bring change 6. Prohibited discrimination in public places, further desegregation of schools, created Equal Employment Commission 7. Electrified the movement, initiated by CORE but used by King to get CORE, SNCC and SCLC to collaborate - successful publicity . Got Bobby Kennedy to enforce Supreme Court rulings on desegregation of inter-state travel in But showed divisions between groups – CORE claim victory in clash with SCLC 8. Middle Class crowd of 250,000, ¼ white, MLK speech broadcast around world, first collaboration of Civil Rights Leaders, seen to have influence passage of Civil Rights Bill 9. This movement was seen to have failed because of lack of Federal support. Once King had achieved compromise with city authority he left the March and protest petered out. Although inter-state terminal facilities were desegregated, the authorities reacted by closing parks, removing seats from cinemas, selling swimming pool etc. Black violence achieved bad publicity and local police chief had avoided violence, thus not enticing support from federal government 10. Seen as first time King had really led the movement and got it right – correctly assessed how Connor would react. Therefore showed America how racist the south was. Force Kennedy to push for Civil Rights Bill 11. SNCC’s finest hour: Voter registration drive got lots of white northern volunteers, 3 young activists murdered by segregationists, MFDF formed, successfully politicised poor blacks. But also contributed to the increasingly violent tone of SNCC 12. Final civil rights act, seen as weak, passed by Johnson – weak due to backlash and riots and Vietnam 1. Montgomery, 2. Voting Rights Act 1965, 3. Browder V Gayle 1956, 4. Sit Ins, 5. Little Rock 1957, 6. Civil Rights Act 1964, 7. Freedom Rides 1961, 8. March on Washington 1963, 9. Albany Movement , 10. Birmingham 1963, 11. Mississippi Freedom Rides Fair Housing Act


11 Presidents Hall of Fame – how much did they help or hinder the cause?
Make a top trumps card for each President Decide on a number of 10 for: Supportive attitude to Civil Rights Legislative Change achieved during their administration How important you think they were to the cause of Civil Rights

12 Eisenhower Kennedy Johnson
Supportive attitude Legislative Change Overall importance to Civil Rights progress

13 Eisenhower Was helpful to the cause in some ways but far less inclined than Truman to propel the US towards Racial equality. He shared typical white fears of dominance by black Americans – born in South and had grown up with segregationist views As a Republican he was ideologically opposed to large-scale federal intervention in any great issue. He was also aware of the damage inflicted on the Democrat Party in divisions over Civil Rights – Republicans had made unusual gains in votes in the South because of this and he was keen to retain them – if he adopted a firm civil rights policy he could only lose these Southern white votes He only met black leaders (King, Wilkins, Randolph) once. Avoided talking to Congressman Adam Clayton Powell. Brown ruling 1954: He refused to use Federal power to enforce the ruling. He was silent on the decision which signified his lack of support for the ruling. He refused to condemn the pro-segregation Southern Manifesto Bus Boycott 1956: refused to give Federal support Little Rock 1957: Showed his reluctance to act – said he could never envisage sending in Federal Troops to enforce a court ruling. When he made speech during the crisis he made no mention of integration – tried to rally nation (without seeming to place blame on Southern extremists) by saying Soviet enemies would make propaganda out of Little Rock therefore justifying his choice to send in troops. He acted because of concerns over US’s international prestige and influence. He also did not respond when Faubaus then closed Little Rock Civil Rights Act 1957: Seen as a ploy to win black vote – it was then weakened in the debate in Congress and Eisenhower did not oppose this. The bill was passed but a much weakened version – did little for black Americans gaining vote as any official who obstructed a citizen would be tried by a white jury anyway. Did establish a Civil Rights Division in Justice Office and a Federal Civil Rights Commission (first since Reconstruction). 1960: Civil Rights Act. Eisenhower introduced over concerns on bombing of black churches and houses: - both parties eventually supported it as they wanted black vote. Made it a crime for federal authorities to obstruct court-ordered school desegregation. Only added 3% of black voters to the register by But did show acknowledgement of Federal responsibilities which encouraged Civil Rights Activists t o campaign for more legislation

14 Kennedy Debate over whether Kennedy’s support for Civil Rights was politically motivated in election campaign of 1960 Seen as slow to help black Americans: no great popular mandate for action (only one narrow election victory in 1960), congress full of influential Southern Democrats, Kennedy planned legislation to help the poor and improve healthcare – if he pushed civil rights too much he might not achieve these main aims of legislative change in Congress. Helped Black Americans: Appointed 5 black federal judges/ 40 blacks in Civil service. But also 20% of Deep South Judicial appointments were Segregationists Justice Department: appointed his brother Bobby Kennedy as Attorney General – but 57 suits against illegal violations of black voting rights in the South compared to only 6 under Eisenhower Symbolic gestures: more black Americans invited to Whitehouse than ever before Created EEOC to give greater economic opportunities to black Americans – but had few triumphs Kennedy’ hand was forced to act by success of civil rights activists: 1961 Freedom Rides – forced to get Bobby Kennedy to get an Interstate Commerce Commission ruling to enforce Supreme Court Rulings on terminal and interstate bus seating ‘Prodded into action’ 1962 – James Meredith case – got NAACP and Supreme Court ruling which meant Kennedy sent in troops Birmingham 1963: Helped greatly in response to the violence demonstrated by white mobs – Kennedy said he felt ‘sickened’ March on Washington 1963: Initially opposed the March. Then endorsed it under pressure from mass activism – no doubt it pressed Kennedy to support passage of bill – this was NOT Kennedy’s action – it was in response to the Civil Rights Movement Housing – he failed to bring any major change. With 1962 congressional election looming Kennedy played down his initial promises to end discrimination - only introduced a measure which was for future change, not immediete Civil Rights Bill: finally proposed one in Feb 1963 – seen as a moderate attempt to desegregate – bill got stuck in congress – Republican opposition Overall record on Civil Rights was mixed – did make symbolic gestures signifying support for change, created EEOC. But his main action was prompted by Black activists. Many frustrated by lack of voter registration efforts. He was slow to bring change because it was politically risky. Southern opposition very strong. But he had paved the way for 1964 Civil Rights Act and morally committed the Presidency to reform. This did damage the Democrat Party in the South which shows the risk Kennedy was prepared to take

15 Johnson Early career as a Senator – opposed Truman’s Civil Rights programme but argued that change at that point was pointless in context of the amount of opposition from Southern Congressmen at that time Seen as ambivalent on Civil Rights But by 1954 Brown case – one of only to support the Supreme Court’s decision but still appeased Southern racists – diluted parts of 1957 Civil Rights Act He change his view on Civil Rights by 1955 – Presidential ambitions realised that he could not be seen as too Southern – aware of Northern Black voters. Time was also ripe for change – he realised that he needed to go along with it in light of growth of activism (Brown/ Montgomery) 1964: Civil Rights Act – he supported it: duty-bound after Kennedy’s death – managed to get the bill passed with skilful negotiation with Southerners in Congress 1965: Voting Rights Act – persuaded Congress of need for voting change – in light of Selma (‘Bloody Sunday’) Johnson was forced to ask Congress for a bill. He therefore engineered a legislative ‘revolution’- historians attribute this to his skills of persuasion but also sense of atonement for Kennedy’ death and of course context of pressure of mass activism. He also used his executive authority to help black Americans: federal funding to schools in the South who supported desegregation/ Thurgood Marshall as Supreme Court Judge/ Why didn’t he do more? Opposition from Congress after 1966 – difficult to sustain initial support for ‘war on poverty and discrimination’/ Riots from provoked White backlash - loss of support for further change. Polls showed 88% of whites after riots supported no further federal intervention. Also bid deficit from Vietnam War detracted from US domestic problems/ Overall: Played an important role in ending De Jure segregation in the South – Southern politics was transformed. Economic and political change created way for larger, richer black middle class. Black unemployment decreased by 34%. But his critics said he created a welfare dependency culture and did not do enough. Although he could be seen to have done as much as he could within the time he had – and the context Most historians agree that Johnson was more genuinely driven to support change compared with Kennedy who was more calculating in his approach. Although the bulk of historians of Civil Rights argue that the main reasons for change were the achievements of the Civil Rights Movements themselves

16 Exam question planning:
‘How important was the contribution of Martin Luther King to the civil rights movement in the years ?’ (2009) ‘To what extent was the Federal Government responsible for improving the status of black people in the United States in the years ?’ (2010) ‘How far was peaceful protest responsible for the successes of the civil rights movement in the years ?’ (2010) ‘How far were the forces opposed to civil rights responsible for the failures of the civil rights movement in the 1960s?’ (2011) How accurate is it to say that Martin Luther King’s policy of peaceful protest was the most important reason for the successes of the civil rights movement in the years ? (2011) How successful was Martin Luther King’s campaign for civil rights in the years 1955–68? (2012) ‘How accurate is it to say that peaceful protests were the most important reason for the improvement in the civil rights of African -Americans in the years ?’ (2013)

17 How accurate is it to say that Martin Luther King’s policy of peaceful protest was the most important reason for the successes of the civil rights movement in the years ? (2011)

18 Evidence to support POINT Evidence to challenge it
FACTOR POINT (what role does this factor have? More or less important than King? Evidence to support POINT Evidence to challenge it KING MASS ACTIVISM PRESIDENTS CONGRESS SUPREME COURT WHITE REACTION

19 What is good about it? PEEJ Argument
Sample Essay What is good about it? PEEJ Argument

20 What about Black Power? Is it relevant to this question?

21 Session 2: MLK and Northern Campaigns & Division of the Movement
Knowledge check quiz 2: In which Western city did riots break out in 1965? Which Northern city did King choose to relocate the SCLC focus to in 1965? Who was the mayor there who King thought could be won over (had black support) In the July rally in 1966 in this city, how many people turned out which was a lot less than King hoped for What did the police turn off that angered Black youths and resulted in riots? Which white neighbourhood did 500 black youths walk into to demonstrate the inequalities of ghettoisation? After King’s northern campaign what new movement attracted many black youths from Northern cities? Which president did not support King in his Northern campaigns in 1966? Which Southern march in 1966 was seen to have distracted King and SCLC from Northern campaign? What new leader of SNCC joined on this March?

22 Summary of what happened in the North Use the handout to make a timeline – make sure you are confident on what happened

23 SAMPLE ANSWER – what is good about it?

24 Why were King’s campaigns less successful in the North than the South?
Factor POINT Evidence to support Arguments against your point Incorrect tactics Lack of black support Increased violence Lack of federal and government support

25 Why did the movement become divided in the 1960’s?
Make mind map – pass it on game

26 Session 3: Black Power

27 Task 1: Memory Boxes. Add your answer in each box to recall what you know about the Black Power Movement Who founded the BPP? What was the NOI? Name two campaigns of the BPP Give two reasons why Black Power declined. What campaign did Marion Barry lead? What medical impact did the BPP have? Which campaigner became associated with the Afro hair style? Give two ways in which Black Power raised the self-esteem of Black Americans Which Jazz composer is associated with the successes of the movement? Name two black TV stars from the 1970’s What were the names of the athletes involved in the 1968 Olympic Games salute Give three words to sum up the significance of the movement Give three limits to the achievements of Black Power

28 Example 1 The Black Power movement was first created by the Nation of Islam then later the creation of the Black Panthers became the militant part of the movement. It was a hugely significant part of the Civil Rights Movement in the 1960’s because it offered an alternative vision to the peaceful protest advocated by Martin Luther King. Some of the main success of the Black Power Movements in this period include the raising of Black pride and self-esteem and the creation of practical help in tackling the problems of ghettoisation. This essay will explain the achievements of Black Power.

29 Example 3 The Black Power Movements of the 1960’s actually achieved a great deal for Black Americans even if they did not lead to the significant legislative changes achieved by the campaigns of peaceful protest. The most important achievement of the Black Power Movements was the impact that the groups had on the self-perception and self-esteem of Black Americans. This helped Black Americans to challenge the deep-rooted social and economic problems of ghettoisation in the North which Martin Luther King and the NAACP had not managed to address. Black Power offered an alternative vision in the 1960’s when the limitations of desegregation were clear to those who lived in the North.

30 Example 2 It is entirely inaccurate to argue that the Black Power Movements of the 1960’s achieved ‘nothing’ for Black Americans because of the undeniably significant impact of the movements had on black pride, culture, society and self-esteem. Despite the clear limitations of the movement in gaining widespread multiracial support or influencing substantial legislative change, the message of Black Power offered an alternative vision which was inspirational to thousands of Black Americans who had been left disillusioned by the limitations of the Peaceful methods of protest and irrelevance of the desegregation achieved by the 1964 Civil Rights Act in light of the de facto segregation and poverty which existed in Northern Ghettos. The extent to which the Black Power achieved change for Black Americans should be assessed by considering the level of influence the political and economic impact, the cultural impact and extent to which it created a sense of pride, and the extent to which it failed because of divisions and violence.

31 How accurate is it to say that Black Power achieved nothing for Black Americans?
Look at the sample answer - how does it tackle the question well? Identify the factors/ line of argument

32 Unpack this question – annotate what factors you would cover?
How accurate is it to say that the growth of Black Power was the most important factor in the weakening of the civil rights movement in the 1960s? Black power/ Opposition/ failure in the North/ Divisions in the movement/ Presidential opposition

33 Key to a good essay PLAN, PLAN, PLAN, PLAN, PLAN
Answers the question in the intro by establishing a clear argument and explaining how the essay will be answered Deals with ‘factors’, not one side for and then against Deal with the factor in the question first (if there is one!) Detailed, relevant, specific evidence used to support arguments (no story telling) Conclusion really weighs up the argument – strong/ assertive/ no sitting on the fence Avoid ‘I’ Careful on abbreviations

34 Plenary What will you do for history over the rest of the week?
What is your plan? What kind of revision activity helps you the most? What grade do you want – how is it going to help you achieve your life goal?

35 Homework for Monday 15th April:
Complete essay on reasons why USA had failed to defeat Vietcong by 1968 Complete reading on Chapter 8 Nixon Complete revision for exam – practice essays please!

36 Next revision sessions
MLK – focus on his significance Hispanic and Native Americans Korea Vietnam

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