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HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT IN THE MODERN ERA 1 Chapter 22 THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT Section 1: Freedom Now! Section 2: Voting.

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Presentation on theme: "HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT IN THE MODERN ERA 1 Chapter 22 THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT Section 1: Freedom Now! Section 2: Voting."— Presentation transcript:

1 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT IN THE MODERN ERA 1 Chapter 22 THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT Section 1: Freedom Now! Section 2: Voting Rights Section 3: Challenges for the Movement Section 4: The Movement Continues

2 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT IN THE MODERN ERA 2 Objectives: How was nonviolence used in the civil rights movement, and how effective was it? How was nonviolence used in the civil rights movement, and how effective was it? How did protests in Albany, Georgia, and Birmingham, Alabama, differ? How did protests in Albany, Georgia, and Birmingham, Alabama, differ? Why did supporters push for a civil rights bill, and what led to its passage? Why did supporters push for a civil rights bill, and what led to its passage? Section 1: Freedom Now!

3 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT IN THE MODERN ERA 3 Nonviolence in the civil rights movement Sit-ins led to desegregation of lunch counters and restaurants. Sit-ins led to desegregation of lunch counters and restaurants. March through Birmingham led to increased public support for civil rights. March through Birmingham led to increased public support for civil rights. Freedom Rides led the Interstate Commerce Commission to strengthen regulations. Freedom Rides led the Interstate Commerce Commission to strengthen regulations. Montgomery Bus Boycott led to desegregation of buses in Montgomery, Alabama. Montgomery Bus Boycott led to desegregation of buses in Montgomery, Alabama. Section 1: Freedom Now!

4 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT IN THE MODERN ERA 4 Albany, Georgia Protesters were arrested in large masses, but there was no violence. Protesters were arrested in large masses, but there was no violence. Martin Luther King, Jr. was quietly let go before he could gain attention. Martin Luther King, Jr. was quietly let go before he could gain attention. The protest was not a success. The protest was not a success. Section 1: Freedom Now!

5 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT IN THE MODERN ERA 5 Birmingham, Alabama Police responded with violence, which caused people to support the protesters. Police responded with violence, which caused people to support the protesters. The protest was a success. The protest was a success.

6 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT IN THE MODERN ERA 6 A civil rights bill Supporters believed that legislation enforced by the federal government was necessary to give Americans equal rights. Supporters believed that legislation enforced by the federal government was necessary to give Americans equal rights. Successful passage was aided by the Birmingham protest, the March on Washington, and the support of Presidents Kennedy and Johnson. Successful passage was aided by the Birmingham protest, the March on Washington, and the support of Presidents Kennedy and Johnson. Section 1: Freedom Now!

7 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT IN THE MODERN ERA 7 Objectives: Why did early efforts to register voters in Mississippi fail? Why did early efforts to register voters in Mississippi fail? Why did the Freedom Summer project meet with limited success? Why did the Freedom Summer project meet with limited success? How did the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party affect relations between the civil rights activists and the federal government? How did the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party affect relations between the civil rights activists and the federal government? How did the Selma protest lead to the passage of the Voting Rights Act? How did the Selma protest lead to the passage of the Voting Rights Act? Section 2: Voting Rights

8 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT IN THE MODERN ERA 8 Reasons for early failures murder of Herbert Lee murder of Herbert Lee violence against African Americans violence against African Americans violence against SNCC volunteers violence against SNCC volunteers arrest of student demonstrators arrest of student demonstrators arson at SNCC office arson at SNCC office Section 2: Voting Rights

9 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT IN THE MODERN ERA 9 Freedom Summer project murders of James Chaney, Andrew Goodman, and Michael Schwerner murders of James Chaney, Andrew Goodman, and Michael Schwerner fear of violence against African Americans fear of violence against African Americans Section 2: Voting Rights

10 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT IN THE MODERN ERA 10 Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party created when Mississippi’s Democratic convention rejected all African American candidates created when Mississippi’s Democratic convention rejected all African American candidates wanted to be recognized as the legitimate Mississippi delegation at Democratic National Convention wanted to be recognized as the legitimate Mississippi delegation at Democratic National Convention offered 2 seats as tokens offered 2 seats as tokens led to belief that the Democratic Party could not be trusted led to belief that the Democratic Party could not be trusted Section 2: Voting Rights

11 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT IN THE MODERN ERA 11 Selma protest and the Voting Rights Act Many Americans outraged by Selma police attacks on marchers. Many Americans outraged by Selma police attacks on marchers. Thousands traveled to Montgomery to show support for marchers. Thousands traveled to Montgomery to show support for marchers. President Johnson, shocked by the attacks, asked Congress to pass a voting rights bill. President Johnson, shocked by the attacks, asked Congress to pass a voting rights bill. Section 2: Voting Rights

12 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT IN THE MODERN ERA 12 Objectives: What role did Malcolm X play in the civil rights movement during the early 1960s? What role did Malcolm X play in the civil rights movement during the early 1960s? Why did nonviolent protest and the goal of racial integration lose support? Why did nonviolent protest and the goal of racial integration lose support? How did northern racial discrimination and urban riots change the civil rights movement? How did northern racial discrimination and urban riots change the civil rights movement? Section 3: Challenges for the Movement

13 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT IN THE MODERN ERA 13 Malcolm X leading minister of Nation of Islam leading minister of Nation of Islam championed African American separatism championed African American separatism called for freedom “by any means necessary” called for freedom “by any means necessary” rejected beliefs in violence and separatism when converted to orthodox Islam rejected beliefs in violence and separatism when converted to orthodox Islam assassinated by Black Muslims in 1965 assassinated by Black Muslims in 1965 Section 3: Challenges for the Movement

14 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT IN THE MODERN ERA 14 Loss of support for nonviolence and integration Those who had endured violence were frustrated with nonviolence. Those who had endured violence were frustrated with nonviolence. Activists were angry that deaths of white civil rights workers generated more concern than deaths of African Americans. Activists were angry that deaths of white civil rights workers generated more concern than deaths of African Americans. Some believed that white students were taking over the movement. Some believed that white students were taking over the movement. Section 3: Challenges for the Movement

15 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT IN THE MODERN ERA 15 Effects of northern racial discrimination and urban riots Race riots decreased white support for movement. Race riots decreased white support for movement. Economic power became emphasized. Economic power became emphasized. King came to believe that the Vietnam War diverted spending from social programs. King came to believe that the Vietnam War diverted spending from social programs. King planned to lead a Poor People’s Campaign. King planned to lead a Poor People’s Campaign. Section 3: Challenges for the Movement

16 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT IN THE MODERN ERA 16 Objectives: What problems did many leading African American organizations encounter in the early 1970s? What problems did many leading African American organizations encounter in the early 1970s? How did the Supreme Court limit busing and affirmative action programs? How did the Supreme Court limit busing and affirmative action programs? What gains did African Americans make during the early 1970s? What gains did African Americans make during the early 1970s? Section 4: The Movement Continues

17 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT IN THE MODERN ERA 17 Problems facing African American organizations loss of support as a result of economic focus loss of support as a result of economic focus failure of Resurrection City project failure of Resurrection City project decrease in financial support decrease in financial support FBI investigations FBI investigations internal conflicts internal conflicts imprisonment or death of many leaders imprisonment or death of many leaders Section 4: The Movement Continues

18 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT IN THE MODERN ERA 18 Supreme Court limits In Milliken v. Bradley, the Court struck down a lower court’s order to merge city and suburban school districts in Detroit. In Milliken v. Bradley, the Court struck down a lower court’s order to merge city and suburban school districts in Detroit. In University of California v. Bakke, the Court ruled that affirmative action plans using quota systems are unconstitutional. In University of California v. Bakke, the Court ruled that affirmative action plans using quota systems are unconstitutional. Section 4: The Movement Continues

19 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT IN THE MODERN ERA 19 Gains of African Americans in the 1970s first African American mayor of Cleveland first African American mayor of Cleveland more than 4,500 African Americans in office by end of decade more than 4,500 African Americans in office by end of decade increase in African American business increase in African American business increase in African American enrollment in colleges and universities increase in African American enrollment in colleges and universities narrowing of income gap between whites and African Americans narrowing of income gap between whites and African Americans formation of strong alliances and lobbies formation of strong alliances and lobbies Section 4: The Movement Continues


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