Presentation on theme: "1 Chapter 9 Leadership Communication. 2 Communication A process by which information and understanding are transferred between a sender and a receiver."— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 9 Leadership Communication
2 Communication A process by which information and understanding are transferred between a sender and a receiver The evoking of a shared or common meaning in another person
3 Ex. 9.1 A Basic Model of the Communication Process Leader encodes message Receiver decodes message Channel Return message encoded and sent Feedback Loop Potential noise and distortion
4 Ex. 9.2 The Leader as Communication Champion Internal and external sources Strategic Conversation Open climate Listening Discernment Dialogue Purpose Directed Direct attention to vision/values, desired outcomes; use persuasion Methods Use rich channels Stories and metaphors Informal communication Leader as Communication Champion Communication Champion: believes that communication is essential to building trust and gaining commitment to vision
5 Ex. 9.3 Why Open the Communication Channels? An open climate is essential for cascading vision, and cascading is essential because: Natural Law 1: You Get What You talk about 1b: You get what you pay attention to and reward A vision must have ample ‘air time’ in an organization. A vision must be shared and practiced by leaders at every opportunity. Natural Law 2: The Climate of an Organization is a Reflection of the Leader A leader who doesn’t embody the vision and values doesn’t have an organization that does. Natural Law 3: You Can’t Walk Faster Than One Step at a Time A vision is neither understood nor accepted overnight. Communicating must be built into continuous, daily interaction so that over time followers will internalize it.
6 Ex. 9.4 Ten Keys to Effective Listening KeysPoor ListenerGood Listener 1. Listen activelyIs passive, laid backAsks questions; paraphrases what is said 2. Find areas of interestTunes out dry subjectsLooks for opportunities, new learning 3. Resist distractionsIs easily distractedFights distractions; tolerates bad habits; knows how to concentrate 4. Capitalize on the fact that thought is faster than speech Tends to daydream with slow speakers Challenges, anticipates, summarizes; listens between lines to tone of voice 5. Be responsiveIs minimally involvedNods; shows interest, positive feedback
7 Ex. 9.4 (contd.) KeysPoor ListenerGood Listener 6. Judge content, not delivery (or style) Tunes out if delivery is poor Judges content; skips over delivery errors 7. Hold one’s fireHas preconceptions; argues Does not judge until comprehension is complete 8. Listen for ideasListens for factsListens to central themes 9. Work at listeningNo energy output; faked attention Works hard; exhibits active body state, eye contact 10. Exercise one’s mindResists difficult material in favor of light, recreational material Uses heavier material as exercise for the mind
8 Discernment Listening to detect unarticulated messages hidden below the surface of spoken interaction Action memo: focus your total attention on what the other person is saying. Work hard to listen – use eye contact; ask questions and paraphrase the message; and offer positive feedback. Pay attention to body language, patterns of interaction, and other clues to discern what followers really think, feel, or want.
Ex. 9.5 Dialogue and Discussion: The Differences Reveal feelings Explore assumptions Suspend convictions Build common ground Long-term, innovative solutions Unified group Shared meaning Transformed mind-sets State positions Advocate convictions Convince others Build oppositions Short-term resolution Agreement by logic Opposition beaten down Mind-sets held onto Result DialogueDiscussion Conversation Lack of understanding, disagreement, divergent points of view, evaluate others ONLY way to change mental models
10 The leader as communication champion Establish credibility Build goals on common ground Make your position compelling to others Connect emotionally
Strong relationships are built on mutual understanding. Leadership is a dialogue, not a monologueStrong relationships are built on mutual understanding. Leadership is a dialogue, not a monologue Dialogue requires listening to others and sharing of yourselfDialogue requires listening to others and sharing of yourself Personal credibility: DWYSYWD – do what you say you will doPersonal credibility: DWYSYWD – do what you say you will do Necessary but not sufficient. Even a despot can have this.Necessary but not sufficient. Even a despot can have this. Leadership credibility: DWWSWWD – do what we say we will doLeadership credibility: DWWSWWD – do what we say we will do
12 Credibility (cont.) Forgetting the we has derailed many managers. Their actions may have been consistent only with their own wishes, not with those of the people they wanted to lead. When managers resort to the use of power and position, to compliance and command to get things done, they are not leading, they are dictating.
13 Credibility (cont.) “The true test of moral legitimacy is grounded in conscious choice among real alternatives. One way to recognize moral leaders and to guard against immoral ones is to observe if they engage in learning the true needs and values of their constituents. If they are more intent on telling than on listening, it is likely that they are up to no good.” (James MacGregor Burns, 1978)
14 Ex. 9.6 A Continuum of Channel Richness Low channel richness High channel richness Disadvantages Impersonal One-way Slow feedback Advantages Provides record Premeditated Easily disseminated Advantages Personal Two-way Fast feedback Disadvantages No record Spontaneous Dissemination hard Formal report Memos, letters Electronic mail, IM, Web, intranet Face-to- face verbal Telephone
15 Ex. 9.7 Dos and Don’ts of Electronic Mail (abridged) Do Use e-mail to set up meetings, to recap spoken conversations, or to follow up on information already discussed face-to-face. Keep e-mail messages short and to-the-point. Many people read e-mail on handheld devices, which have small screens. Use e-mail to prepare a group of people for a meeting. For example, it is convenient to send the same documents to a number of people and ask them to review the materials before the meeting. Use e-mail to transmit standard reports. Act like a newspaper reporter. Use the subject line to quickly grab the reader’s attention.
16 Ex. 9.7 (contd.) Don’t Use e-mail to discuss something with a colleague who sits across the aisle or down the hall from you. Take the old-fashioned approach of speaking to each other. Lambaste a friend or colleague via e-mail – and especially don’t copy others on the message. Use e-mail to start or perpetuate a feud. Write anything in an e-mail you wouldn’t want published in a newspaper. E-mail with sensitive or potentially embarrassing information has an uncanny way of leaking out.
17 Nonverbal Communication Nonverbal Communication - all elements of communication that do not involve words Four basic types Proxemics - an individual’s perception & use of space Kinesics - study of body movements, including posture Facial & Eye Behavior - movements that add cues for the receiver Paralanguage - variations in speech, such as pitch, loudness, tempo, tone, duration, laughing, & crying
Proxemics: Seating Dynamics Seating Dynamics - seating people in certain positions according to the person’s purpose in communication Cooperation X O Non- Communication O X O Competition X O X Communication O
Examples of Decoding Nonverbal Cues Boss fails to acknowledge employee’s greeting No eye contact while communicating Manager sighs deeply Boss breathes heavily & waves arms He’s unapproachable! My opinion doesn’t count I wonder what he’s hiding? He’s angry! I’ll stay out of his way!
Communicating concerns about performance Why? The purpose is to improve performance of the employee. Watch your motives. What? Behaviors. Find good ones first, then focus on behavior not meeting standards. Make sure they (and you) understand why their behavior does not meet standards and how to correct it. How do you arrange the meeting? Sends a message before the actual counseling session. In person, e-mail, letter, secretary?
Communicating concerns about performance Where? Your place or theirs? Power symbols (e.g. seating) depend on severity of problem and if punishment is involved. When? As close to the discrepancy as possible. Time of day considerations? How do you express your concerns? In person? Written? (memo, e-mail, letter, note). Consider speaking to them in person and follow-up in writing. What next? Your behavior following counseling is key. Need to establish normal relations, follow-up but still be supportive. Build efficacy. Remember procedural justice – everyone is watching you.