Presentation on theme: "Leadership Communication"— Presentation transcript:
1Leadership Communication Chapter 9Leadership Communication
2CommunicationA process by which information and understanding are transferred between a sender and a receiverThe evoking of a shared or common meaning in another person
3Ex. 9.1 A Basic Model of the Communication Process Potential noise and distortionLeader encodes messageReceiver decodes messageChannelReturn message encoded and sentFeedback Loop
4Ex. 9.2 The Leader as Communication Champion Purpose DirectedDirect attention to vision/values, desired outcomes; use persuasionLeaderas Communication ChampionStrategic ConversationOpen climateListeningDiscernmentDialogueInternal and external sourcesMethodsUse rich channelsStories and metaphorsInformal communicationCommunication Champion: believes that communication is essential tobuilding trust and gaining commitment to vision
5Ex. 9.3 Why Open the Communication Channels? An open climate is essential for cascading vision, andcascading is essential because:Natural Law 1: You Get What You talk about1b: You get what you pay attention to and rewardA vision must have ample ‘air time’ in an organization. A vision must be shared and practiced by leaders at every opportunity.Natural Law 2: The Climate of an Organization is aReflection of the LeaderA leader who doesn’t embody the vision and values doesn’t have an organization that does.Natural Law 3: You Can’t Walk Faster Than One Step at aTimeA vision is neither understood nor accepted overnight. Communicating must be built into continuous, daily interaction so that over time followers will internalize it.
6Ex. 9.4 Ten Keys to Effective Listening Poor ListenerGood Listener1. Listen activelyIs passive, laid backAsks questions; paraphrases what is said2. Find areas of interestTunes out dry subjectsLooks for opportunities, new learning3. Resist distractionsIs easily distractedFights distractions; tolerates bad habits; knows how to concentrate4. Capitalize on the fact that thought is faster than speechTends to daydream with slow speakersChallenges, anticipates, summarizes; listens between lines to tone of voice5. Be responsiveIs minimally involvedNods; shows interest, positive feedback
7Ex. 9.4 (contd.) Keys Poor Listener Good Listener 6. Judge content, not delivery (or style)Tunes out if delivery is poorJudges content; skips over delivery errors7. Hold one’s fireHas preconceptions; arguesDoes not judge until comprehension is complete8. Listen for ideasListens for factsListens to central themes9. Work at listeningNo energy output; faked attentionWorks hard; exhibits active body state, eye contact10. Exercise one’s mindResists difficult material in favor of light, recreational materialUses heavier material as exercise for the mind
8DiscernmentListening to detect unarticulated messages hidden below the surface of spoken interactionAction memo: focus your total attention on what the other person is saying. Work hard to listen – use eye contact; ask questions and paraphrase the message; and offer positive feedback. Pay attention to body language, patterns of interaction, and other clues to discern what followers really think, feel, or want.
9Ex. 9.5 Dialogue and Discussion: The Differences ConversationLack of understanding, disagreement, divergent points of view, evaluate othersDialogueDiscussionReveal feelingsExplore assumptionsSuspend convictionsBuild common groundState positionsAdvocate convictionsConvince othersBuild oppositionsONLY wayto changementalmodelsResultResultShort-term resolutionAgreement by logicOpposition beaten downMind-sets held ontoLong-term, innovative solutionsUnified groupShared meaningTransformed mind-sets
10The leader as communication champion Establish credibilityBuild goals on common groundMake your position compelling to othersConnect emotionally
11Strong relationships are built on mutual understanding Strong relationships are built on mutual understanding. Leadership is a dialogue, not a monologueDialogue requires listening to others and sharing of yourselfPersonal credibility: DWYSYWD – do what you say you will doNecessary but not sufficient. Even a despot can have this.Leadership credibility: DWWSWWD – do what we say we will do
12Credibility (cont.)Forgetting the we has derailed many managers. Their actions may have been consistent only with their own wishes, not with those of the people they wanted to lead. When managers resort to the use of power and position, to compliance and command to get things done, they are not leading, they are dictating.
13Credibility (cont.)“The true test of moral legitimacy is grounded in conscious choice among real alternatives. One way to recognize moral leaders and to guard against immoral ones is to observe if they engage in learning the true needs and values of their constituents. If they are more intent on telling than on listening, it is likely that they are up to no good.” (James MacGregor Burns, 1978)
15Ex. 9.7 Dos and Don’ts of Electronic Mail (abridged) Use to set up meetings, to recap spoken conversations, or to follow up on information already discussed face-to-face.Keep messages short and to-the-point. Many people read on handheld devices, which have small screens.Use to prepare a group of people for a meeting. For example, it is convenient to send the same documents to a number of people and ask them to review the materials before the meeting.Use to transmit standard reports.Act like a newspaper reporter. Use the subject line to quickly grab the reader’s attention.
16Ex. 9.7 (contd.)Don’tUse to discuss something with a colleague who sits across the aisle or down the hall from you. Take the old-fashioned approach of speaking to each other.Lambaste a friend or colleague via – and especially don’t copy others on the message.Use to start or perpetuate a feud.Write anything in an you wouldn’t want published in a newspaper. with sensitive or potentially embarrassing information has an uncanny way of leaking out.
17Nonverbal Communication Nonverbal Communication - all elements of communication that do not involve wordsFour basic typesProxemics - an individual’s perception & use of spaceKinesics - study of body movements, including postureFacial & Eye Behavior - movements that add cues for the receiverParalanguage - variations in speech, such as pitch, loudness, tempo, tone, duration, laughing, & crying
18Proxemics: Seating Dynamics Seating Dynamics - seating people in certain positions according to the person’s purpose in communicationCooperationX OXCommunicationOCompetitionXONon-CommunicationO X O
19Examples of Decoding Nonverbal Cues He’sunapproachable!He’s angry! I’llstay out of his way!Boss breathes heavily & waves armsBoss fails to acknowledge employee’s greetingMy opiniondoesn’t countI wonder whathe’s hiding?No eye contact while communicatingManager sighs deeply
20Communicating concerns about performance Why? The purpose is to improve performance of the employee. Watch your motives.What? Behaviors. Find good ones first, then focus on behavior not meeting standards. Make sure they (and you) understand why their behavior does not meet standards and how to correct it.How do you arrange the meeting? Sends a message before the actual counseling session. In person, , letter, secretary?
21Communicating concerns about performance Where? Your place or theirs? Power symbols (e.g. seating) depend on severity of problem and if punishment is involved.When? As close to the discrepancy as possible. Time of day considerations?How do you express your concerns? In person? Written? (memo, , letter, note). Consider speaking to them in person and follow-up in writing.What next? Your behavior following counseling is key. Need to establish normal relations, follow-up but still be supportive. Build efficacy. Remember procedural justice – everyone is watching you.