Comprehension “Comprehension occurs through text- based analysis and discussion.” “Access to information in the absence of critical thought is a dangerous recipe.” Douglas Fisher, Teaching Students to Read Like Detectives: Comprehending, Analyzing, and Discussing Text, pg. 1 (Emphasis mine)
Reader & Text Both are necessary for understanding It’s like a dance only instead of moving to music, movement comes through the use of words and the meanings and emotions they convey Reading is all encompassing Gleaning information and deciding what is useful and meaningful
Key Shifts in Teaching & Learning Schoolwide Literacy (Content Area Literacy) Increased Rigor (more challenging) Reading More Complex Informational Text Using Textual Evidence to Support Claims Increased Student Engagement Increased Strategic Teaching with Assessments
Intervention is key When older students can’t read by Louisa Moats
Content Literacy Every Teacher - Every Classroom
Presentation Overview CCRS Standards and Examples Strategies Analysis & Discourse Scaffolding Strategies Cognitive Strategies Assessment Strategies Argumentation Strategies Informational & Expository Text Text Complexity (Introduction) Web-based Resources and Ideas
Examples in Action Reading Like A Historian: Sourcing (Primary Documents) Elementary Science: Journaling to Master Magnets Text Dependent Analysis of “Letter From A B’ham Jail” Sorting and Classifying Equations: Reaching Consensus
Analysis and Discourse Develop conditions for Classroom Discourse An invitation for all to participate Encourage to listen attentively and build on the ideas of others The right to raise issues and influence the directions of the discourse An expectation that students will express opinion and ideas The use of textual evidence to support opinions and ideas Fisher, pg. 17
Scaffolding Strategies Open-ended Exchanges between Teacher and Pupil Modeling and Thinking Aloud Visual clues, Graphic Organizers Demonstration or “Show and Tell” Offering Clarification Providing Background
Cognitive Strategies Making Connections Visualizing Questioning Predicting Inferring Synthesizing Summarizing Self-Monitoring Comprehension Students use cognitive strategies to gain understanding.
Assessment Strategies Used daily to assess learning Strategic teaching principles Before the lesson During the lesson After the lesson Modify and follow-up
Understanding Argumentation X-raying a Text: an examination to find the bones (argument) or skeleton in the text Terms: examining word choice which often reveals the author’s intent or purpose Propositions: assumptions that may not be absolute (as opposed to fact) Argument: series of statements supported by evidence (fact or logic)
Understanding Argumentation Rhetorical Reading: an interrogation of the text Determine the author’s purpose Consider the sources Challenge the message
Understanding Argumentation Using Ethos, Pathos, and Logos in Argumentation (Persuasion) Ethos - persuasion is based on the authority or honesty of the writer (credentials) Pathos - persuasion is based upon an emotional argument Logos - persuasion is based upon logic and are primarily fact driven
Informational or Expository Text Text that explains or informs Tends to focus on the biological, social, and physical world around us Differs from narrative or fiction in accuracy and authority, but to what degree can be subjective Use of primary source documents
Text Complexity Simply stated, complex text is a measured degree of "expected" comprehension ranging from too easy to too difficult.
For a first grader who is an independent reader, there will be text that will range from "easy" to "hard" for that particular reader to be able to read and comprehend, and the same is true for all readers. There is a three-fold component to be considered when determining the complexity of a particular text - a quantitative measure, plus a qualitative measure, plus the subjective measure of a reader's abilities comparative to the assessed difficulty level of the desired text and ensuing activity. In addition, there is also the consideration of grade-by grade specifications for increasing text complexity in successive years of schooling.These measures are to be used together with grade-specific standards that require increasing sophistication in students’ reading comprehension ability. The Standards thus approach the intertwined issues of what and how students read individually and from increased rigor in year to year.