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Slide 1 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT 15 A Topical Approach to John W. Santrock Peers and the Sociocultural.

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Presentation on theme: "Slide 1 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT 15 A Topical Approach to John W. Santrock Peers and the Sociocultural."— Presentation transcript:

1 Slide 1 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT 15 A Topical Approach to John W. Santrock Peers and the Sociocultural Word

2 Slide 2 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Peers and the Sociocultural World Peer Relations in Childhood and AdolescencePeer Relations in Childhood and Adolescence Friendship Play and Leisure Aging and the Social World Sociocultural Influences

3 Slide 3 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Peer Group Functions Peers — individuals about the same age or maturity level Peer groups provide source of information and comparison about world outside the family Peer influences and evaluations can be negative or positive Peer Relations in Childhood and Adolescence

4 Slide 4 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Parent Influences on Peer Relations Choice of neighborhoods, churches, schools Recommend strategies to handle disputes or become less shy Encourage children to be tolerant or resist peer pressure Provide emotional base from which to explore peer relations Peer Relations in Childhood and Adolescence

5 Slide 5 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Developmental Changes Early Childhood –Frequency of peer interaction increases Middle/Late Childhood –Children spend increasing time in peer interaction Average time spent –10% of time spent with peers at age 2 –20% of time spent with peers at age 4 –40% of time spent with peers during ages 7-11 Peer Relations in Childhood and Adolescence

6 Slide 6 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Social Cognition Thoughts about social matters Perspective-taking — taking another’s point of view –In elementary school, peer interaction and perspective-taking ability increase –Promotes effective communication skills Social Knowledge Social Information-Processing Skills Peer Relations in Childhood and Adolescence

7 Slide 7 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Peer Statuses Popular Average Neglected Frequently nominated as a best friend; rarely disliked by peers Rejected Controversial Receive average number of positive and negative nominations from peers Infrequently nominated as a best friend but not disliked by peers Infrequently nominated as a best friend; actively disliked by peers Frequently nominated as someone's best friend and as being disliked Peer Relations in Childhood and Adolescence

8 Slide 8 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Bullying Physical or verbal behavior with harmful intent Significant numbers victimized –Boys and younger middle school students –Victims of bullies reported more loneliness and difficulty in making friends –Those who did the bullying more likely to have low grades, smoke and drink alcohol Peer Relations in Childhood and Adolescence

9 Slide 9 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Bullying Behaviors Among U.S. Youth Peer Relations in Childhood and Adolescence Fig. 15.2

10 Slide 10 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Bullying To reduce bullying –Older peers serve as monitors and intervene –Develop school-wide rules and sanctions –Form friendship groups for victims –Spread anti-bullying message to community –Parents reinforce and model positive behaviors –Identify bullies and victims early –Provide professional help for bully and victim Peer Relations in Childhood and Adolescence

11 Slide 11 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Gender and Peer Relations Gender composition –From age 3, children prefer same-sex groups Group size –From age 6, boys prefer larger groups Interaction in same-sex groups –Boys: organized group games, rough-and-tumble –Girls: collaborative discourse Peer Relations in Childhood and Adolescence

12 Slide 12 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Adolescent Peer Relations Peers play powerful roles Focus of relations — to be liked and included Peer pressure and conformity Pressure to conform to standards — can be positive or negative Peer Relations in Childhood and Adolescence

13 Slide 13 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Conformity to Antisocial Peer Standards Peer Relations in Childhood and Adolescence Fig. 15.4

14 Slide 14 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Cliques and Crowds Cliques –Average 5 to 6 people –Usually same sex, age –Formed from shared activities, friendship Crowds –Larger than cliques –Usually formed based on reputation –May not spend much time together Friendship

15 Slide 15 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Peer Relations in Childhood and Adolescence Fig Dunphy’s Progression of Peer Group Relations in Adolescence

16 Slide 16 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Six Functions of Friendship Companionship Stimulation Physical support Ego support Social comparison Intimacy/affection –intimacy in friendship — self-disclosure and sharing of private thoughts Friendship

17 Slide 17 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Friendship during Childhood Children use friends as cognitive and social resources Not all friends and friendships are equal –Supportive friendships advantageous –Coercive, conflict-ridden friendships not Friends generally similar — age, sex, ethnicity, and many other factors Friendship

18 Slide 18 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Strategies for Making Friends Inappropriate Be psychologically aggressive Present oneself negatively Behave antisocially Friendship Appropriate Initiate interaction Be nice Behave prosocially Show respect Give social support

19 Slide 19 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Friendship during Adolescence Need for intimacy intensifies Quality of friendship more strongly linked to feelings of well-being Important sources of support Mixed-age friendships Friends are active partners in building a sense of identity Friendship

20 Slide 20 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Developmental Changes in Self- Disclosing Conversations Friendship Fig. 15.6

21 Slide 21 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Friendship during Adolescence Girls more intimate with friends than boys More risk of delinquent behavior when friends are older Early maturers more at risk for delinquent behavior Early maturing girls formed friendships with older girls who were biologically similar Friendship

22 Slide 22 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Adult Friendship Family relationships are obligatory, ascribed –Cannot choose to replace parents and siblings –Family members from different generations Friendship optional, chosen –Can select and replace friends –Friends are often similar in age Friendship

23 Slide 23 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Adult Friendship Gender Differences –Women More close friends More intimate; talk more –Men More competitive Engage in activities, especially outdoors –More cross-gender friendships than childhood but still prefer same-gender Friendship

24 Slide 24 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Friendship in Late Adulthood Important role; tend to narrow social network Choose close friends over new friends Friends replace distant family Gender differences –Women: more depressed without a best friend; no change in desire for friends –Men: decreased desire for new and close friends in older adulthood Friendship

25 Slide 25 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Childhood Functions of play –Health –Affiliation with peers –Cognitive development –Exploration –Tension release, master anxiety and conflicts Play therapy Play and Leisure

26 Slide 26 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Parten’s Classic Study of Play Play and Leisure Onlooker Parallel Solitary Unoccupied Child not engaging in play as commonly understood; might stand in one spot Associative Cooperative Child watches other children play Child plays separately from others, but in manner that mimics their play Play that involves social interaction with little or no organization Play that involves social interaction in group with sense of organized activity Child plays alone, independently of others

27 Slide 27 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Types of Play Play and Leisure Pretense/ Symbolic Social Practice Sensorimotor Infants derive pleasure from exercising their sensorimotor schemes Games Repetition of behavior when new skills are being learned Activities engaged in for pleasure; include rules Occurs when child transforms physical environment into symbol Involves social interactions with peers

28 Slide 28 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Leisure Pleasant times after work or school when individuals are free to pursue activities and interests of their choosing U.S. adolescents spend more time than those in other countries –Most time in unstructured leisure activities –Most time in voluntary structured activities Play and Leisure

29 Slide 29 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Leisure in Adulthood Many adults view leisure as boring and unnecessary Mid-life changes may produce expanded opportunities for leisure Adults at midlife need to begin preparing psychologically for retirement Play and Leisure

30 Slide 30 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Social Theories of Aging Disengagement theory Activity theory Social breakdown- reconstruction theory To cope effectively, older adults should gradually withdraw from society The more active and involved older adults are, the more likely they are to be satisfied with their lives Breakdown begins by negative views of older adults, ends by labeling self; social reconstruction brought about by viewing older adults as competent Aging and the Social World

31 Slide 31 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Stereotyping of Older Adults Ageism — prejudice against other people because of age, especially prejudice against older adults Personal consequences of negative stereotyping can be serious Aging and the Social World

32 Slide 32 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Social Support and Social Integration Social convoy model of social relations — go through life embedded in personal network of individuals that give social support –Helps those of all ages cope –Improves mental and physical health –Linked to reduced symptoms of disease –Linked to longevity –Emotionally positive contact lowers depression Aging and the Social World

33 Slide 33 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. The Stress of Caring for Older Adults Individuals with long-term caregiving responsibilities are at risk for –Clinical depression –Compromised immune systems Aging and the Social World

34 Slide 34 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Successful Aging Many abilities maintained or even improved as we get older –Being active –Perceived control over the environment Aging and the Social World

35 Slide 35 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Culture Behavior patterns, beliefs, and all other products of a group of people that are passed on from generation to generation –Ethnocentrism — tendency to favor one’s own group over other groups Global interdependence is inescapable reality –All are citizens of the world –Better understanding effective interactions Sociocultural Influences

36 Slide 36 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Individualism and Collectivism Individualism — giving priority to personal goals rather than to group goals; emphasizing values that serve the self Collectivism — emphasizing values that serve the group by subordinating personal goals to preserve group integrity, interdependence of members, and harmonious relationships Sociocultural Influences

37 Slide 37 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. American and Chinese Self-Conceptions Sociocultural Influences Fig. 15.9

38 Slide 38 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Rites of Passage Ceremonies or rituals that mark an individual’s transition from one status to another, especially into adulthood Some are elaborate Some are abrupt entry into adulthood Religious and social groups use initiations Sociocultural Influences

39 Slide 39 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Seven factors most likely to predict high status for elderly High-status elders Have valuable knowledge Control key family or community resources Permitted to engage in useful, valued functions Have role continuity throughout the life span Have age-related role changes with greater responsibility, etc. Extended family is common family type Are more collectivistic than individualistic Sociocultural Influences

40 Slide 40 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. What Is Socioeconomic Status? SES –Grouping of people with similar occupational, educational, and economic characteristics –Number depends on community’s size, complexity –Low SES and middle SES Each could have many subcategories SES variations in neighborhoods, schools Sociocultural Influences

41 Slide 41 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Socioeconomic Variations in Families Higher SES parents: –Develop children’s initiative and delay gratification –Create home atmosphere in which children are more nearly equal participants –Less likely to use physical punishment –Less directive; more conversational with children –Neighborhood variation affects child development Sociocultural Influences

42 Slide 42 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychological Ramifications of Poverty Powerlessness Vulnerable to disaster Alternatives are restricted Less prestige Lower quality home environments for children Sociocultural Influences

43 Slide 43 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Who is Poor? Women — feminization of poverty –1/3 of single mothers; 10% of single fathers Families and poverty –Economic pressure linked with parenting –Benefits to parents help children Poverty, aging, and ethnicity –10-12% overall, more among women and ethnic minorities Sociocultural Influences

44 Slide 44 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Percentage of Youth Under 18 Who are Living in Distressed Neighborhoods Sociocultural Influences Fig

45 Slide 45 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Immigration Relatively high rates — contribute to U.S. ethnic diversity Special stressors often experienced –Language barriers –Separation from support network –SES changes –Preserving ethnic identity versus acculturation –Cultural value conflicts within family Sociocultural Influences

46 Slide 46 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. U.S. Adolescents Aged 10-19, Sociocultural Influences Fig

47 Slide 47 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Ethnicity Ethnicity and socioeconomic status –Difficult to separate influences of ethnicity and SES –Minorities overrepresented in lower SES may cause exaggeration of negative ethnic influences –Links between acculturation and adolescent problems Sociocultural Influences

48 Slide 48 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Ethnicity Ethnicity and families –Families vary by size, structure, composition, levels of income and education, kinship networks –More single families in some groups –Ethnic minority parents are less educated –Children experience double disadvantage Do not escape prejudice and discrimination Stressful effects of poverty felt Sociocultural Influences

49 Slide 49 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Differences and Diversity Recognizing differences important to getting along in diverse world Differences among ethnic groups too often conceived by majority as deficits of minorities –Damaging to minorities Diversity within ethnic groups Sociocultural Influences

50 Slide 50 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Ethnicity and Aging Double jeopardy - ageism and racism Health and wealth decrease faster in age than for White Americans Coping mechanisms –Extended family networks –Ethnic neighborhoods –Churches Sociocultural Influences

51 Slide 51 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. The End 15


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