2 1. Introduction 2. Fact or Fiction? 3. The Peer Group 4. Families and Children 5. The Nature of the Child 6. Closing Thoughts
Introduction 3 [Video: Socioemotional Development Introduction]
4 Fact or Fiction?FictionFact 1. School-age children typically are more self-critical than they were when they were younger. 2. Children in a shared home environment tend to react to family situations in a similar way. 3. Acceptance by their peer group is more important to school-age children than having a few close friends. 4. Bullying during middle childhood seems to be universal. Socioemotional Development
5 The Culture of Children culture of children: The particular habits, styles, and values that reflect the set of rules and rituals that characterize children as distinct from adult society. What are some factors that shape a culture of children? Friendship and social acceptance Children learn how to be a good friend. Gender differences persist in activities. Boys and girls want best friends. Friends chosen for common interests, values, backgrounds. Popular and unpopular children aggressive-rejected children are disliked because they are antagonistic and confrontational. Withdrawn-rejected children are disliked because they are timid and anxious. Social awareness Social cognition is the ability to understand social interactions, including the causes and consequences of human behavior. Culture of Children
6 Choosing friends [Video: The Development of Friendship]
7 The social use of language [Video: An Observation of Children During Middle Childhood Clip B]
friendship is a symmetrical, one-to-one relationship. Popularity is a group concern. Social Acceptance Does being popular relate to being personally liked for girls in grade school and middle school? 579 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 Relationship between being liked and being thought popular 8 Grade
9 Social Acceptance [Video: An Observation of Children During Middle Childhood Clip E]
Childrens Moral Codes 10 How did 133 9-year-olds respond to a moral dilemma? Repair Harm or Hurt the Transgressor? Percent Who Chose to Repair Harm Average Scores (Maximum 3) on Broken Window Plus Two New Stories 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 At first An hour later Two weeks later Eight weeks later PercentScore At firstAn hour later Two weeks later Eight weeks later 2.9 2.7 2.5 2.3 2.1 1.9 1.7 1.5 Boy-boyGirl-girl Mixed sex No interaction Source: Leman & Björnberg, 2010. Source: Leman % Björnberg, 2010.
Childrens Moral Codes 11 [Video: Interview with Larry Walker]
Childrens Moral Codes 12 [Video: A Journey Through Middle Childhood: Clip E]
Bullies and Victims bullying: Repeated, systematic efforts to inflict harm through physical, verbal, or social attack on a weaker person. bully-victim: Someone who attacks others and who is attacked as well. What are some possible long-term consequences?
Bullies and Victims 14 [Video: Bullying: Clip C]
Bullies and Victims 15 [Video: A Journey Through Middle Childhood: Clip F]
Shared and Nonshared environment 16 What are some parent-driven and individual-driven influences on siblings in a family? Shared parent influences Nonshared individual influences moves job changes for parent(s) divorce familys socioeconomic status age genes resilience gender school and afterschool activities neighborhood peers
Material necessities Learning Self-respect Peer relationships Harmony and stability Family Function and Dysfunction 17 What do children age 6 to 11 need from their families? family function: The way a family works to meet the needs of its members. family structure: The legal and genetic relationships among relatives living in the same home. Although children eat, dress, and sleep without help, families can furnish food, clothing, and shelter Families can support, encourage, and guide education Because children become self-critical and socially aware, families can provide opportunities for success Families can welcome friendships Families can provide protective, predictable routines
18 Family Trouble Low-income, high conflict Financial stress increases conflict and vice versa, affecting family function and structure The effects of poverty are cumulative Low SES may be especially damaging to children ages 6 to 11 High-income, high conflict Parental pressure on the children to excel causes stress in middle childhood This may lead to childrens drug use, delinquency, and poor academic performance in high school The Weight of Family Conflict
Psychoanalytic Theory How do children ages 6 to 11 enact the theories of Erikson and Freud? 19 Girls stay away! Boys stink.
Self-Concept What factors affect how children perceive themselves in middle childhood? Social comparison The tendency to assess ones abilities, achievements, social status, and other attributes by measuring them against those of other people, especially ones peers.
Self-Concept 21 [Video: An Observation of Children During Middle Childhood: Clip F]
Coping and Overcoming 22 resilience: The capacity to adapt well to significant adversity and to overcome serious stress. What are some accumulated stresses that children experience? Source: Survey data gathered by Howard J. Osofsky et al., of Louisiana State University; reported in Viadero, 2007, p.7. Stresses Experienced by New Orleans Children as a Result of Hurricane Katrina Had been separated from a primary caregiver Had homes damaged in the storm Had moved Had transferred to a new school Had lost a family member or friend Had a parent who was unemployed Had been separated from a pet 10203040506070 Percent
Coping and Overcoming 23 [Video: Excerpts from Up: Paul and Simon, Two Children Who Lived in a Group Home]
24 In what ways do children build their social competence/skills during middle childhood? Closing Thoughts