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Slide 1 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT 11 A Topical Approach to John W. Santrock The Self, Identity,

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Presentation on theme: "Slide 1 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT 11 A Topical Approach to John W. Santrock The Self, Identity,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Slide 1 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT 11 A Topical Approach to John W. Santrock The Self, Identity, and Personality

2 Slide 2 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. The Self, Identity, and Personality The Self Identity Personality

3 Slide 3 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Self-Understanding Self All characteristics of a person –Self-understanding, self-esteem, self-concept Identity who a person is, representing a synthesis of self-understanding Personality enduring personal characteristics of individuals The Self

4 Slide 4 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Self-Understanding Cognitive representation of the self, substance of self conceptions Visual self-recognition tests infants Young children perceive self as external characteristics Older children recognize difference between inner and outer states The Self

5 Slide 5 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Development of Self-Understanding in Children The Self Infancy Self-recognition begins around 18 mos Early Childhood Conceive of self as body part, usually head; describe self in physical terms Middle/Late Childhood More complex self-understanding Internal characteristics Social aspects Social comparison

6 Slide 6 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Self-Recognition in Infancy Fig. 11.1

7 Slide 7 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. The Role of Perspective-Taking Perspective-taking ability to assume anothers perspective and understand his or her thoughts and feelings –Selman: 5 stages age 3 to adolescence Affects peer status and quality of friendships The Self

8 Slide 8 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Selmans Stages of Perspective-Taking Fig. 11.2

9 Slide 9 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Self-Understanding in Adolescence Abstract and idealistic Self-conscious; preoccupied with self Fluctuating across situations Compare real and ideal selves –Possible selves: what persons may be, would like to be, and are afraid of becoming Self-integration in sense of identity The Self

10 Slide 10 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Changes in Self-Understanding in Adulthood Self-Awareness –Awareness of strengths and weaknesses –Improves in young and middle adulthood Possible Selves –Get fewer and more concrete with age –Some revise throughout adulthood Life Review –Some in middle age, common in older adults –Evaluations of successes and failures The Self

11 Slide 11 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Self-Esteem and Self-Concept Self-esteem –Global evaluative dimension of the self –Same as self-worth or image Self-concept –Domain-specific evaluations of the self The Self

12 Slide 12 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Issues with Self-Esteem Modest correlations link self-esteem and school performance; links vary between adult job performance and self-esteem Self-esteem related to perceived physical appearance across life-span Depression lowers high self-esteem The Self

13 Slide 13 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Issues with Self-Esteem Persons with high self-esteem –Increased happiness –Have greater initiative –Prone to both prosocial and antisocial actions Undeserved high self-esteem –Narcissism: self-centered, self-concerned –Conceited –Lack of awareness linked to adjustment problems The Self

14 Slide 14 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Self-Esteem in Childhood and Adolescence Accuracy of self-evaluations increases across the elementary school years Majority of adolescents have positive self-image cross-culturally Girls self-esteem is significantly lower than boys by middle school years The Self

15 Slide 15 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Self-Esteem in Adulthood Some researchers find drops in self-esteem in late adulthood; others dont Older adults with positive self-esteem –May not see losses as negatively –Decrease in knowledge-related goals –Increase in emotion-related goals –Compare themselves to other older adults The Self

16 Slide 16 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Self-Esteem Across the Lifespan Prenatal Development Fig. 11.4

17 Slide 17 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Increasing Self-Esteem Identify causes of low self-esteem Provide/seek emotional support and social approval Develop self-confidence and initiative Achieve Develop coping skills The Self

18 Slide 18 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Self-Regulation Ability to control ones behavior without having to rely on others for help Includes self-generation and cognitive monitoring of thoughts Self-regulation linked to higher achievement and satisfaction over the lifespan The Self

19 Slide 19 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Self-Regulation in Infancy and Early Childhood months 2-3 years Preschool Depend on caregivers for reminder signals about acceptable behaviors Begin to comply with the caregivers expectations in the absence of monitoring Learn to resist temptation and give themselves instructions that keep them focused The Self

20 Slide 20 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Self-Regulation in Middle/Late Childhood and Adolescence Self-regulation increases from about 5 or 6 years up to 7 or 8 years of age Across elementary school years, children increase beliefs that behavior is result of own effort and not luck From 8 to 14 years of age, children increase perception of self-responsibility for failure The Self

21 Slide 21 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Selective Optimization with Compensation Successful self-regulation in aging linked to –Selection: reduction in performance –Optimization: continue practice, use of technology –Compensation: concealment; offsetting or counterbalancing a deficiency The Self

22 Slide 22 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Personal Control Primary control striving –Ones efforts to change external world to fit needs and desires –Attain personal goals, overcome obstacles Secondary control striving –Targets ones inner worlds: motivation, emotion, and mental representation The Self

23 Slide 23 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Changes In Primary and Secondary Control Strategies Across the Life Span The Self Fig. 11.6

24 Slide 24 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Eriksons Ideas on Identity Identity versus identity confusion –Adolescents examine who they are, what they are about, and where they are going in life Psychosocial moratorium –Gap between childhood security and adult autonomy, part of adolescent identity exploration Identity

25 Slide 25 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Identitys Components Achievement/intellectual identity Vocational/career identity Cultural/ethnic identity Relationship identity Religious identity Physical identity Interest Personality Sexual identity Political identity Identity

26 Slide 26 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Contemporary Views of Identity Gradual, lengthy process Identity formation neither begins nor ends with adolescence –Appearance of attachment –Development of a sense of self –Emergence of independence in infancy Resolution does not mean lifetime stability Identity

27 Slide 27 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Identity Statuses According to Marcia: Individuals go through periods of –Crisis: exploring alternatives during identity development –Commitment: individuals show personal investment in what they are going to do Identity

28 Slide 28 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Identity Marcias Identity Statuses Fig. 11.9

29 Slide 29 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Developmental Changes in Identity Status Young adolescents primarily in statuses of diffusion, foreclosure, or moratorium Important for achieving positive identity –Confidence in parental support –Established sense of industry –Able to adopt self-reflective stance of future Identity

30 Slide 30 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Developmental Changes in Identity Status Most important changes occur ages 18 to 25 MAMA cycle: pattern for positive identity moratorium achievement moratorium achievement Family influences on identity development –Individuality has two dimensions –Connectedness has two dimensions Identity

31 Slide 31 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Family Influences Identity Self-assertion Separateness Mutuality Permeability Ability to have and give point of view Openness to others views Individuality Use of communication patterns to express own individuality Connectedness Sensitivity to and respect for other views

32 Slide 32 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Culture and Ethnicity Erikson very sensitive to role of culture Ethnic minority groups struggle to blend into dominant culture and keep cultural identities Aware of –Negative appraisals and stereotyping –Restricted opportunities –Conflicting values influencing life choices –Two existing value systems Identity

33 Slide 33 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Trait Theories and the Big Five Factors of Personality Trait Theories –Personality is broad dispositions or traits that tend to produce characteristic responses –Big Five Factors of Personality theory –Led to advancements in assessing personality –Most believe personality is result of trait- situation interaction Personality

34 Slide 34 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Big Five Factors of Personality Personality Fig

35 Slide 35 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Views On Adult Development Stage-Crisis View –Levinsons Seasons of a Mans Life –Stage and transitions occur in life span –Tasks or crisis in each stage shape personality –Levinsons midlife crisis in 40s: try to cope with gap between past and future –Vaillants Grant Study Personality

36 Slide 36 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Levinsons Seasons of Life Personality Era of late adulthood: 60 to ? Late Adult Transition: Age 60 to 65 Age 50 transition: 50 to 55 Culminating life structure for middle adulthood: 55 to 60 Entry life structure for middle adulthood: 45 to 50 Middle Adult Transition: Age 40 to 45 Early Adult Transition: Age 17 to 22 Age 30 transition: 28 to 33 Culminating life structure for early adulthood: 33 to 40 Entry life structure for early adulthood: 22 to 28

37 Slide 37 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Emotional Instability and Age Personality Fig

38 Slide 38 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Age and Well-Being Personality Fig

39 Slide 39 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. The Life-Events Approach Now contemporary life-events approach; alternative to the stage approach How a life event influences individuals development depends on: –The life event –Individuals adaptation to the life event –Life-stage context –Sociohistorical context Personality

40 Slide 40 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Life Events Framework Personality Fig

41 Slide 41 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Generativity versus Stagnation Seventh stage in Eriksons life-span theory Generativity –Encompasses adults desire to leave legacy to next generation –Middle-aged adults develop in number of ways Stagnation –Also self-absorption, develops when one senses s/he has done nothing for next generation Personality

42 Slide 42 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Changes In Generativity from the Thirties to the Fifties Personality Fig

43 Slide 43 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Stability and Change Many longitudinal studies have found evidence for both change and stability in personality in adulthood –Neugartens Kansas City Study –Costa and McCraes Baltimore Study –Berkley Longitudinal Studies –Helsons Mills College Study –Vaillants studies Personality

44 Slide 44 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Stability and Change Cumulative Personality Model –With time and age, people become more adept at interacting with environment in ways that promote stability Overall, personality is affected by –Social contexts –New experiences –Sociohistorical changes Personality

45 Slide 45 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Openness to Experience, Age, and Culture Personality Fig

46 Slide 46 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Links Between Characteristics at Age 50 and Health and Happiness at Ages Fig

47 Slide 47 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. The End 11


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