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TEEB Training Session 2: Biodiversity Loss ©TEEB
TEEB Training “What is nature worth?” Video © Institute on Environment, Minnesota: Big Question: What Is Nature Worth?" YouTube ©TEEB
TEEB Training Biodiversity loss: The decline of genetic diversity and distribution and abundance of species diversity, the loss of ecosystem structures, and/or the impairment of ecological functions Ecosystem degradation : A persistent reduction in the capacity to provide ecosystem services. Natural capital: An extension of the economic notion of capital (manufactured means of production) to environmental 'goods and services'. Let’s define…. © UNEP/GRID-Arendal ©TEEB
TEEB Training 2000 © Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency ©TEEB
TEEB Training 2050 TEEB Training © Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency ©TEEB
TEEB Training 2000 2050 Level of Biodiversity in the World from 2000 and 2050:OECD/Globio ©TEEB
TEEB Training Impact of Biodiversity Loss Deforestation in the Amazon Houses collapsing due to coastal erosion in Alaska Pollution in the mangroves of Bali Litter at the docks in Seychelles ©UNEP/GRID-Arendal ©TEEB
TEEB Training Population size (reaching ~9 billion people) Lifestyle changes (increasing urbanisation and per capita income growing 2-4 times) Governance and policy responses (coordinating responses to global challenges) Land conversion and habitat loss (converting 10-20% of additional grassland and forestland) Overexploitation incl. overfishing (increasing pressure) The Key drivers ©UNEP/GRID-Arendal ©TEEB
TEEB Training Key drivers cont… Invasive alien species (continuing spread) Reactive nitrogen flow (increasing by another 66% – already doubled during the past 50 years) Climate change (continuing global warming – expected to become the predominant global cause of ecosystem degradation and ecosystem service loss) Pollution (mainly from excessive pesticide use in agriculture and aquaculture; urban and industrial effluents; mining waste; and excessive fertilizer use etc) ©UNEP/GRID-Arendal ©TEEB
TEEB Training Source: FAO 2005a: 7 Source: Nellemann et al 2008: 22 Fisheries exploitation Forestry – deforestation, afforestation Biodiversity (loss) Coral reefs at risk The Impact on ecosystems ©2005 Millennium Ecosystems Assessment ©TEEB
TEEB Training MA’s major findings regarding ecosystems The structure and functioning of the world’s ecosystems has changed rapidly the past 50 years 20% of the world’s coral reefs have been lost and more than 20% are degraded 35% of mangrove area has been lost in the last several decades Rate of species extinction is estimated to be 100 to 1,000 times more rapid than the “natural” extinction rate In the past two decades, 35% of mangroves have disappeared. ©UNEP/GRID-Arendal ©TEEB
TEEB Training FAO: Global Forest Area has shrunk by approximately 40% since 1700, Forests have completely disappeared in 25 countries Ramsar: Since 1900, the world has lost about 50% of its wetlands Global coral reef monitoring network: Some 20% of the world’s coral reefs- have been effectively destroyed by fishing, pollution, disease and coral bleaching approximately 24% of the remaining reefs in the world are imminent risk of collapse through human pressures 4 Additional findings from other resources… ©TEEB
TEEB Training What is happening to Biodiversity? ©TEEB
TEEB Training ©2005 Millennium Ecosystems Assessment Why does Biodiversity loss matter? ©TEEB
TEEB Training “ Has The Earth passed its tipping point?” Video © Institute on Environment, Minnesota, 2010 ©TEEB
TEEB Training GDP & Natural Capital Loss How they (don’t) Fit Year 2000 Year 2050 Services that would have been there, had biodiversity been halted Ecosystem service level Population 9100 million GDP (OECD Scenarios) 2.8%/year GDP, with feedback on economic losses from biodiversity losses integrated - illustrative Relative to 2000 Population: 6092 million GDP: 41.4$ trillion (PPP) (10^12) GDP/capita: 680$ (PPP) GDP adjusted for well-being impact of biodiversity loss - illustrative © IEEP, 2009 ©TEEB
TEEB Training Key Reasons to End the Economic Invisibility of Nature Costs and risks of business as usual (BAU) are too large to ignore BAU can also exacerbate poverty Economic solutions exist across policy & business which begin by valuing nature To realize the productive and employment potential of Natural Capital stewardship ©UNEP/GRID-Arendal ©TEEB
TEEB Training Responding to natures Invisibilities; A Recap so far The value of biodiversity and ecosystem services is not being fully reflected in the markets, price signals and policies Decision making (at company, policy & citizen level) often fails to take into account the local to global benefits of biodiversity and ecosystem services Assessing ecosystem service benefits is critical There is a need to improve the economic signals to help take the values of nature into account There is a growing recognition of the need to improve and invest political capital in natural capital accounts and integrated environmental and economic accounts ©TEEB
TEEB Training Group Exercise 3 Identify: In pairs of two, 1) Identify the drivers of biodiversity loss? 2) What types of biodiversity loss are currently happening in your country. Brainstorm: what possible solutions could there be for these issues in your country? ©Master isolated images/FreeDigitalPhotos.net ©TEEB
The Economic Value of Biodiversity. General statistics of losses of biodiversity up to the present By the year 2000, only about 73% of the original global.
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