Presentation on theme: "Biodiversity, Ecosystem Services and Adaptation"— Presentation transcript:
1 Biodiversity, Ecosystem Services and Adaptation International Workshop on Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change: From Practice to Policy on May11-12, New DelhiBiodiversity, Ecosystem Services and AdaptationDr Pushpam KumarAssociate ProfessorInstitute of Economic Growth, Delhi
2 Biodiversity and Climate Change Biodiversity- different life form, their variety and variability at all levelsAdaptation is comprised of activities that reduce a system’s (human and natural) vulnerability to climate changeBiodiversity is determined byMean climate and climate variabilityProductivity of siteOriginal stock of biodiversitySpatial heterogeneity of habitatsThe intensity and interdependency of biotic interactions (competition, predation , mutualism and symbolismPast changes in the global climate resulted in major shifts in species ranges and marked reorganisation of biological communities, landscapes and biomes
3 Scale of Change20% of the world’s coral reefs were lost and more than 20% degraded35% of mangrove area has been lost in the last several decadesMA Synthesis SDM. “The structure and functioning of the world’s ecosystems changed more rapidly in the second half of the twentiethcentury than at any time in human history.■ Approximately 20% of the world’s coral reefs were lost and an additional 20% degraded in the last several decades of thetwentieth century, and approximately 35% of mangrove area was lost during this time (in countries for which sufficient data exist,which encompass about half of the area of mangroves).■ The amount of water impounded behind dams quadrupled since 1960, and three to six times as much water is held inreservoirs as in natural rivers. Water withdrawals from rivers and lakes doubled since 1960; most water use (70% worldwide)is for agriculture.”
4 Linkages of CC, Adaptation and Biodiversity Every year, 3.2 Gt of atmospheric of C is built up (release minus assimilation by terrestrial and oceanic ecosystems)Ecosystems approach helps the scope of adaptation and its impact on biodiversityLand use change can significantly influence the reduction of GHGs through avoiding deforestation, conserving carbon pool substitution of fossil fuels etc.Bioenergy, hydropower are useful responses for enhancing and strengthening biodiversity and climate change
5 Resilient ecosystems are more likely to adapt to climate change and climate variability Protected change in climate during the 21st century will occur faster than in at least the past 10,000 years (change in exotic species, IAS etc)Some ecosystems are particularly vulnerable to climate change e.g. coral reefs and mangroves etc.Changes in Biodiversity at ecosystem and landscape scale will further change the climate!
7 Linkages among Biodiversity, Ecosystem services, and Human Well-Being
8 Indirect Drivers of Change Direct Drivers of Change Generic Links (e.g. MA)Human Well-being andPoverty ReductionBasic material for a good lifeHealthGood Social RelationsSecurityFreedom of choice and actionIndirect Drivers of ChangeDemographicEconomic (globalization, trade, market and policy framework)Sociopolitical (governance and institutional framework)Science and TechnologyCultural and ReligiousDirectDriversIndirectEcosystemServicesHumanWell-beingLife on Earth:BiodiversityDirect Drivers of ChangeChanges in land useSpecies introduction or removalTechnology adaptation and useExternal inputs (e.g., irrigation)Resource consumptionClimate changeNatural physical and biological drivers (e.g., volcanoes)The conceptual framework for the MA posits that people are integral parts of ecosystems and that a dynamic interactionexists between them and other parts of ecosystems, with the changing human condition driving, both directlyand indirectly, changes in ecosystems and thereby causing changes in human well-being. (See Figure B.) At the sametime, social, economic, and cultural factors unrelated to ecosystems alter the human condition, and many naturalforces influence ecosystems. Although the MA emphasizes the linkages between ecosystems and human well-being, itrecognizes that the actions people take that influence ecosystems result not just from concern about human well-beingbut also from considerations of the intrinsic value of species and ecosystems. Intrinsic value is the value of somethingin and for itself, irrespective of its utility for someone else.Changes in drivers that indirectly affect biodiversity, such as population, technology, and lifestyle (upper right corner of Figure), can lead to changesin drivers directly affecting biodiversity, such as the catch of fish or the application of fertilizers (lower right corner). These result in changes toecosystems and the services they provide (lower left corner), thereby affecting human well-being. These interactions can take place at more thanone scale and can cross scales. For example, an international demand for timber may lead to a regional loss of forest cover, which increasesflood magnitude along a local stretch of a river. Similarly, the interactions can take place across different time scales. Different strategies andinterventions can be applied at many points in this framework to enhance human well-being and conserve ecosystems.
10 Degradation and unsustainable use of ecosystem services Approximately 60% (15 out of 24) of the ecosystem services evaluated in this assessment are being degraded or used unsustainablyDegradedCapture fisheriesWild foodsWood fuelGenetic resourcesBiochemicalsFresh WaterAir quality regulationRegional and local climate regulationErosion regulationWater purificationPest regulationPollinationNatural Hazard regulationSpiritual and religious valuesAesthetic valuesEnhancedCropsLivestockAquacultureCarbon sequestration (in last 50 yrs)
12 WHY ARE WE LOSING BIODIVERSITY WHEN IT IS SO VALUABLE? Many of the costs of changes in biodiversity have historically not been factored into decision-making.Many costs associated with changes in biodiversity may be slow to become apparent, may be apparent only at some distance from where biodiversity was changed, or may involve thresholds or changes in stability that are difficult to measure.Because some ecosystem services are more difficult to value, many decisions continue to be made in the absence of a detailed analysis of the full costs, risks, and benefits.
13 Unprecedented additional efforts would be required to achieve, by 2010, a significant reduction in the rate of biodiversity loss at all levelsBiodiversity will continue to decline this centuryWith appropriate responses:it is possible to achieve by 2010 a reduction of the rate of biodiversity loss for certain components, or for certain indicatorsSeveral of the sub-targets can be met
14 Some possible actions?There are many examples where conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity does work. BUTMore progress in reducing biodiversity loss can be achieved through:Better integration into broader development and poverty reduction strategies and greater coherence and synergies among sectoral responsesmore systematic consideration of trade-offs among ecosystem servicesMore equitable and fair access to and sharing of ecosystem services
15 WHY IS BIODIVERSITY LOSS A PROBLEM? It has dire consequences for many critical constituents of well-being including material wealth, security, health, social relations and the freedom of choice and action.Biodiversity Ecosystem Functioning Ecosystem Services Human Well-beingThere is no doubt many people have benefited over the last century from the conversion of natural ecosystems to human-dominated ecosystems and the exploitation of biodiversity. At the same time, however, these losses in biodiversity and changes in ecosystem services have caused others to experience declining well-being, with poverty in some social groups being exacerbated.
16 WHY ARE WE LOSING BIODIVERSITY WHEN IT IS SO VALUABLE? Many of the costs of changes in biodiversity have historically not been factored into decision-making.Many costs associated with changes in biodiversity may be slow to become apparent, may be apparent only at some distance from where biodiversity was changed, or may involve thresholds or changes in stability that are difficult to measure.Because some ecosystem services are more difficult to value, many decisions continue to be made in the absence of a detailed analysis of the full costs, risks, and benefits.
17 WHY SOME BIODIVERSITY LOSS IS INEVITABLE IN THE FUTURE
18 WHAT CAN WE DO?Make sure the value of all ecosystem services, not just those bought and sold in the market, are taken into account when making decisions.Better integration into broader development and poverty reduction strategies and greater coherence and synergies among sectoral responsesmore systematic consideration of trade-offs among ecosystem servicesMore equitable and fair access to and use of ecosystem services, especially regulating services
19 ACTIONS TO TAKETo strengthen responses with a primary goal of conservation that have been partly successful.To strengthen responses with a primary goal of sustainable use that have shown promiseTo strengthen the use of integrated responses that address both conservation and sustainable useTo strengthen responses that address direct and indirect drivers and that seek to establish enabling conditions that would be particularly important for biodiversity and ecosystem services
20 Contd….Opportunity exists to harness the synergy among different conventions (CBD, UNFCC)Transparent and Participative decision making processEcosystems management and biodiversity conservation have strong bearing on success of datptation strategy.Innovative decision making tools and responses are available and should be utilised effectively.